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Based on data from 233 Danish lakes, enclosure experiments, full-scaleexperiments and published empirical models we present evidence that top-downcontrol is more important in shallow lakes than in deep lakes, excepting lakeswith a high abundance of submerged macrophytes. The evidence in support is: (1)That at a given epilimnion total phosphorus(More)
The sediment plays an important role in the overall nutrient dynamics of shallow lakes. In lakes where the external loading has been reduced, internal phosphorus loading may prevent improvements in lake water quality. At high internal loading, particularly summer concentrations rise, and phosphorus retention can be negative during most of the summer.(More)
In order to evaluate short-term and long-term effects of fish manipulation in shallow, eutrophic lakes, empirical studies on relationships between lake water concentration of total phosphorus (P) and the occurrence of phytoplankton, submerged macrophytes and fish in Danish lakes are combined with results from three whole-lake fish manipulation experiments.(More)
R. Alfieri, R. Cecchini, V. Ciaschini, L. dell’Agnello , A. Gianoli, F. Spataro INFN, Italy F. Bonnassieux CNRS, France P. Broadfoot, G. Lowe University of Oxford, United Kingdom L. Cornwall, J. Jensen, D. Kelsey CCLRC/Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, United Kingdom Á. Frohner CERN D.L. Groep, W. Som de Cerff, M. Steenbakkers, G. Venekamp NIKHEF, The(More)
Using empirical data from 466 temperate to arctic lakes covering a total phosphorus (TP) gradient of 2–1036 g L, we describe how the relative contributions of resource supply, and predator control change along a nutrient gradient. We argue that (a) predator control on large-bodied zooplankton is unimodally related to TP and is highest in the most(More)
The effects of nutrients on the biological structure of brackish and freshwater lakes were compared. Quantitative analysis of late summer fish, zooplankton, mysid and macrophyte populations was undertaken in 20–36 shallow brackish lakes of various trophic states and the findings compared with a similar analysis of shallow freshwater lakes based on either(More)
Shallow lakes respond to nutrient loading reductions. Major findings in a recent multi-lake comparison of data from lakes with long time series revealed: that a new state of equilibrium was typically reached for phosphorus (P) after 10–15 years and for nitrogen (N) after <5–10 years; that the in-lake Total N:Total P and inorganic N:P ratios increased; that(More)
The effects of maximal effort strength training with different loads on maximal strength, muscle cross-sectional area, the load-power and load-velocity relationship were investigated in the elbow flexors. Physical education students were matched into three groups; G90 (n = 9) trained with a load of 90%, G35 (n = 11) with 35%, and G15 (n = 10) with 15% of(More)
Within a certain nutrient level shallow lakes may alternate between two states, a clearwater and a turbid state. To obtain more information on the characteristics of these two states, we compared seasonal variations in trophic structure and physico-chemical variables of two clear and two turbid lakes studied during seven or eight years. The clearwater lakes(More)
The effects of major reductions in organic matter, total phosphorus (TP), and total nitrogen (TN) loading on the chemical environment, trophic structure, and dynamics of the hypertrophic, shallow Lake Søbygård were followed for 18 years. After the reduction in organic matter loading in 1976, the lake initially shifted from a summer clear-water state, most(More)