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OBJECTIVE Results from animal and human studies suggest that disregulations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are involved in several behavioral, circulatory, endocrine, and immune disorders with clear-cut gender differences in disease prevalence. The aim of the present study was to investigate sex-specific HPA response patterns with a focus(More)
The present study tested the hypothesis that some subjects may not readily show habituation of adrenocortical stress responses to repeated psychological stress. Twenty healthy male subjects were each exposed five times to the same, brief psychosocial stressor (public speaking and mental arithmetic in front of an audience) with one stress session per day.(More)
Following the assumption that stressors play an important part in the etiology and maintenance of psychiatric disorders, it is necessary to evaluate parameters reflecting stress-related physiological reactions. Results from these examinations may help to deepen the insight into the etiology of psychiatric disorders and to elucidate diagnostic uncertainties.(More)
Biological indicators for stress reactions are valuable markers in psychophysiological research and clinical practice. Since the release of salivary enzyme alpha-amylase was reported to react to physiological and psychological stressors, we set out to investigate human salivary alpha-amylase changes employing a reliable laboratory stress protocol to(More)
Attempts to link personality traits and cortisol stress responses have often been inconclusive. The aim of this paper was to investigate this association by aggregating cortisol stress responses. Therefore, 20 healthy men were exposed to a task consisting of public speaking and mental arithmetics in front of an audience on five days. Six cortisol levels(More)
Psychosocial stress is a potent activator of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. While the physiological mechanisms of HPA axis responses to stress as well as its short and long-term consequences have been extensively examined, less is known why someone elicits an acute neuroendocrine stress response, i.e. what are the psychological processes(More)
Psychosocial stress is a potent activator of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. While neuroendocrine stress responses are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis, evidence suggests that excessive activation of the HPA axis constitutes a risk for disease and psychopathology. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of(More)
OBJECTIVE Subtle dysregulations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in chronic fatigue syndrome have been described. The aim of this study was to examine the negative feedback regulations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in chronic fatigue syndrome. METHODS In 21 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and 21 healthy control subjects,(More)
Evidence from animal studies and clinical observations suggest that the activity of the pituitary-adrenal axis is under significant influence of sex steroids. The present study investigated how a short term elevation of estradiol levels affects ACTH, cortisol, norepinephrine, and heart rate responses to mental stress in healthy men. In a double blind study,(More)
OBJECTIVE Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by increased self-reported stress and emotional responding. Knowledge about the psychological and physiological mechanisms that underlie these experiences in BPD patients is scarce. The objective was to assess both psychological and endocrinological responses to a standardized psychosocial(More)