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The reconstruction of artifact-free images from radially encoded MRI acquisitions poses a difficult task for undersampled data sets, that is for a much lower number of spokes in k-space than data samples per spoke. Here, we developed an iterative reconstruction method for undersampled radial MRI which (i) is based on a nonlinear optimization, (ii) allows(More)
THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM COMPRISES ELONGATED FIBER PATHWAYS THAT REPRESENT A SERIOUS CHALLENGE FOR DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING (DTI) AND FIBER TRACTOGRAPHY: while tracking of frontal fiber bundles may be compromised by the nearby presence of air-filled cavities, nerves, and eye muscles, the anatomic courses of the three main fiber bundles of the optic radiation(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a predominantly clinical and electromyographic diagnosis. Conventional MRI reveals atrophy of the motor system, particularly the pyramidal tract, in the advanced stages but does not provide a sensitive measure of disease progression. Three patients with different principal symptoms of ALS, i.e., with predominant(More)
A subsecond magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for isotropic diffusion mapping is described which, in contrast to echo-planar imaging (EPI), is insensitive to resonance offsets, i.e., tissue susceptibility differences, magnetic field inhomogeneities, and chemical shifts. It combines a diffusion-weighted (DW) spin-echo preparation period and a(More)
Dynamic MRI studies of the upper airway during speaking, singing or swallowing are complicated by the need for high temporal resolution and the presence of air-tissue interfaces that may give rise to image artifacts such as signal void and geometric distortions. This work exploits a recently developed real-time MRI technique to address these challenges for(More)
BACKGROUND Functional assessments of the heart by dynamic cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) commonly rely on (i) electrocardiographic (ECG) gating yielding pseudo real-time cine representations, (ii) balanced gradient-echo sequences referred to as steady-state free precession (SSFP), and (iii) breath holding or respiratory gating. Problems may(More)
The most frequent primary brain tumors, anaplastic astrocytomas (AA) and glioblastomas (GBM): tend to invasion of the surrounding brain. Histopathological studies found malignant cells in macroscopically unsuspicious brain parenchyma remote from the primary tumor, even affecting the contralateral hemisphere. In early stages, diffuse interneural infiltration(More)
The main impact of functional neuroimaging has been its ability to locate neuronal activity either directly (EEG, MEG) or through the hemodynamic response caused by neuronal activity (PET, fMRI). In the past decade functional neuroimaging has been extended to investigate how brain regions interact, using the concepts of functional and effective(More)
The desire to visualize noninvasively physiological processes at high temporal resolution has been a driving force for the development of MRI since its inception in 1973. In this article, we describe a unique method for real-time MRI that reduces image acquisition times to only 20 ms. Although approaching the ultimate limit of MRI technology, the method(More)
Severe mental illnesses have been linked to white matter abnormalities, documented by postmortem studies. However, cause and effect have remained difficult to distinguish. CNP (2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase) is among the oligodendrocyte/myelin-associated genes most robustly reduced on mRNA and protein level in brains of schizophrenic, bipolar(More)