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Several tracing studies have established a topographical distribution of fiber connections to the cortex in midsagittal cross-sections of the corpus callosum (CC). The most prominent example is Witelson's scheme, which defines five vertical partitions mainly based on primate data. Conventional MRI of the human CC does not reveal morphologically discernable(More)
Changes in glucose consumption, lactate production, and blood oxygenation were measured during prolonged neuronal activation (4-6 min) in human primary visual cortex using dynamic magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. A decrease of steady-state glucose by 40% because of enhanced use by 21% was accompanied by a transient accumulation of lactate with a(More)
Stress-induced structural remodeling in the adult hippocampus, involving debranching and shortening of dendrites and suppression of neurogenesis, provides a cellular basis for understanding the impairment of neural plasticity in the human hippocampus in depressive illness. Accordingly, reversal of structural remodeling may be a desirable goal for(More)
Changes in cerebral blood oxygenation due to functional activation of the primary sensorimotor cortex during a unilateral finger opposition task were simultaneously mapped by deoxyhemoglobin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Activation foci along the contralateral central sulcus displayed(More)
Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming glial cells of the central nervous system, maintain long-term axonal integrity. However, the underlying support mechanisms are not understood. Here we identify a metabolic component of axon-glia interactions by generating conditional Cox10 (protoheme IX farnesyltransferase) mutant mice, in which oligodendrocytes and(More)
Recent studies indicate that the cortical effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may not be localized to the site of stimulation, but spread to other distant areas. Using echo-planar imaging with blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast at 3 Tesla, we measured MRI signal changes in cortical and subcortical motor regions during(More)
In a patient with extrapyramidal movement disorder and extremely low creatinine concentrations in serum and urine, in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy disclosed a generalized depletion of creatinine in the brain. Oral substitution of arginine, a substrate for creatine synthesis, resulted in an increase of brain guanidinoacetate as the immediate(More)
Stimulus-related signal changes in functional MRI of human brain activation not only reflect associated adjustments of cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption, but strongly depend on the MRI technique chosen and the actual experimental setting. A list of relevant parameters includes static field homogeneity of the magnet, MR pulse sequence and signal(More)
To elucidate changes in human brain activity evoked by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), sub- and suprathreshold rTMS (4 Hz, 10 s) over the left primary sensorimotor cortex (M1/S1) was interleaved with blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) echo-planar imaging of primary and secondary motor areas. Suprathreshold rTMS over left M1/S1(More)