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Recent studies indicate that the cortical effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may not be localized to the site of stimulation, but spread to other distant areas. Using echo-planar imaging with blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast at 3 Tesla, we measured MRI signal changes in cortical and subcortical motor regions during(More)
Fine-scale functional organization of the finger areas in the human primary somatosensory cortex was investigated by high-resolution BOLD MRI at 3 T using a multi-echo FLASH sequence with a voxel size of 2 mm(3). In six subjects independent tactile stimulation of the distal phalanx of the fingers of the right hand resulted in small circumscribed and barely(More)
Stress-induced structural remodeling in the adult hippocampus, involving debranching and shortening of dendrites and suppression of neurogenesis, provides a cellular basis for understanding the impairment of neural plasticity in the human hippocampus in depressive illness. Accordingly, reversal of structural remodeling may be a desirable goal for(More)
The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on human brain activity and associated hemodynamics were investigated by blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) MRI using echo-planar imaging at 2.0 T. Apart from bilateral activation of the auditory cortex by the audible rTMS discharges (23 bursts, 1 s duration, 10 Hz, 10-20 s(More)
To elucidate changes in human brain activity evoked by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), sub- and suprathreshold rTMS (4 Hz, 10 s) over the left primary sensorimotor cortex (M1/S1) was interleaved with blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) echo-planar imaging of primary and secondary motor areas. Suprathreshold rTMS over left M1/S1(More)
Stimulus-related signal changes in functional MRI of human brain activation not only reflect associated adjustments of cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption, but strongly depend on the MRI technique chosen and the actual experimental setting. A list of relevant parameters includes static field homogeneity of the magnet, MR pulse sequence and signal(More)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a frequent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by variable clinical severity. Core symptoms are qualitatively impaired communication and social behavior, highly restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Although recent work on genetic mutations in ASD has shed light on the pathophysiology of the disease,(More)
Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MRI was used to monitor modulations of human sensorimotor activity by prior transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Activation maps for a right hand sequential finger opposition task were obtained for six subjects before as well as 0-5 min and 15-20 min after a 5-min period of 1 mA cathodal and, in a separate(More)
Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming glial cells of the central nervous system, maintain long-term axonal integrity. However, the underlying support mechanisms are not understood. Here we identify a metabolic component of axon-glia interactions by generating conditional Cox10 (protoheme IX farnesyltransferase) mutant mice, in which oligodendrocytes and(More)
Fast low-angle shot (FLASH) imaging is a new technique for rapid magnetic resonance (MR) imaging that reduces acquisition times to seconds while retaining spatial resolution. This article deals with a three-dimensional (3D) variant of the FLASH method that allows the recording of a 3D-data set of 128 X 128 X 128 pixels within an acquisition time of only 4(More)