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Insulin receptors (IRs) and insulin signaling proteins are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). To study the physiological role of insulin signaling in the brain, we created mice with a neuron-specific disruption of the IR gene (NIRKO mice). Inactivation of the IR had no impact on brain development or neuronal survival. However,(More)
Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is among the earliest detectable defects in humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. To determine the contribution of muscle insulin resistance to the metabolic phenotype of diabetes, we used the Cre-loxP system to disrupt the insulin receptor gene in mouse skeletal muscle. The muscle-specific insulin receptor knockout mice(More)
Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is pivotal in mediating the actions of insulin and growth factors in most tissues of the body, but its role in insulin-producing beta islet cells is unclear. Freshly isolated islets from IRS-1 knockout mice and SV40-transformed IRS-1-deficient beta-cell lines exhibit marked insulin secretory defects in response to(More)
The principal substrate for the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors is the cytoplasmic protein insulin-receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1/pp185). After tyrosine phosphorylation at several sites, IRS-1 binds to and activates phosphatidylinositol-3'-OH kinase (PI(3)K) and several other proteins containing SH2 (Src-homology 2) domains. To(More)
Mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cause several well-recognized human genetic syndromes with deficient oxidative phosphorylation and may also have a role in ageing and acquired diseases of old age. We report here that hallmarks of mtDNA mutation disorders can be reproduced in the mouse using a conditional mutation strategy to manipulate the expression(More)
Although insulin regulates metabolism in both brown and white adipocytes, the role of these tissues in energy storage and utilization is quite different. Recombination technology using the Cre-loxP approach allows inactivation of the insulin receptor in a tissue-specific manner. Mice lacking insulin receptors in brown adipocytes show an age-dependent loss(More)
Mice made insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) deficient by targeted gene knockout exhibit growth retardation and abnormal glucose metabolism due to resistance to the actions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin (E. Araki et al., Nature 372:186-190, 1994; H. Tamemoto et al., Nature 372:182-186, 1994). Embryonic fibroblasts and 3T3 cell lines(More)
Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is the major cytoplasmic substrate of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptors. Transgenic mice lacking IRS-1 are resistant to insulin and IGF-1, but exhibit significant residual insulin action which corresponds to the presence of an alternative high molecular weight substrate in liver and muscle.(More)
Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are serious public health threats. Although enormous research efforts have been focused on the pathogenesis of these diseases, the underlying mechanisms remain only partly understood. Here we review mouse phenotypes resulting from inactivation of molecules responsible for the control of glucose metabolism that have led(More)
The insulin receptor substrate (IRS) family of proteins mediate a variety of intracellular signaling events by serving as signaling platforms downstream of several receptor tyrosine kinases including the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors. Recently, several new members of this family have been identified including IRS-3, IRS-4, and(More)