Jens C. Brüning

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Several independent, genome-wide association studies have identified a strong correlation between body mass index and polymorphisms in the human FTO gene. Common variants in the first intron define a risk allele predisposing to obesity, with homozygotes for the risk allele weighing approximately 3 kilograms more than homozygotes for the low risk allele.(More)
Dysfunction of the pancreatic beta cell is an important defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, although its exact relationship to the insulin resistance is unclear. To determine whether insulin signaling has a functional role in the beta cell we have used the Cre-loxP system to specifically inactivate the insulin receptor gene in the beta cells. The(More)
The insulin receptor (IR) is expressed in various regions of the developing and adult brain, and its functions have become the focus of recent research. Insulin enters the central nervous system (CNS) through the blood-brain barrier by receptor-mediated transport to regulate food intake, sympathetic activity and peripheral insulin action through the(More)
Impairment of insulin signaling in the brain has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. To test the hypothesis that neuronal insulin resistance contributes to defects in neuronal function, we have performed a detailed analysis of brain/neuron-specific insulin receptor knockout (NIRKO) mice. We find that NIRKO mice exhibit a complete loss of(More)
We present a consolidated view of the complexity and challenges of designing studies for measurement of energy metabolism in mouse models, including a practical guide to the assessment of energy expenditure, energy intake and body composition and statistical analysis thereof. We hope this guide will facilitate comparisons across studies and minimize(More)
Global energy balance in mammals is controlled by the actions of circulating hormones that coordinate fuel production and utilization in metabolically active tissues. Bone-derived osteocalcin, in its undercarboxylated, hormonal form, regulates fat deposition and is a potent insulin secretagogue. Here, we show that insulin receptor (IR) signaling in(More)
Insulin action in the central nervous system regulates energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. To define the insulin-responsive neurons that mediate these effects, we generated mice with selective inactivation of the insulin receptor (IR) in either pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)- or agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons of the arcuate nucleus of(More)
Insulin has pleiotropic biological effects in virtually all tissues. However, the relevance of insulin signaling in peripheral tissues has been studied far more extensively than its role in the brain. An evolving body of evidence indicates that in the brain, insulin is involved in multiple regulatory mechanisms including neuronal survival, learning, and(More)
Leptin and insulin have been identified as fuel sensors acting in part through their hypothalamic receptors to inhibit food intake and stimulate energy expenditure. As their intracellular signaling converges at the PI3K pathway, we directly addressed the role of phosphatidylinositol3,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated (PIP3-mediated) signals in hypothalamic(More)
Mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cause several well-recognized human genetic syndromes with deficient oxidative phosphorylation and may also have a role in ageing and acquired diseases of old age. We report here that hallmarks of mtDNA mutation disorders can be reproduced in the mouse using a conditional mutation strategy to manipulate the expression(More)