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Alterations in the stiffness of lipid bilayers are likely to constitute a general mechanism for modulation of membrane protein function. Gramicidin channels can be used as molecular force transducers to measure such changes in bilayer stiffness. As an application, we show that N-type calcium channel inactivation is shifted reversibly toward negative(More)
Hydrophobic interactions between a bilayer and its embedded membrane proteins couple protein conformational changes to changes in the packing of the surrounding lipids. The energetic cost of a protein conformational change therefore includes a contribution from the associated bilayer deformation energy (DeltaGdef0), which provides a mechanism for how(More)
Lipid metabolites, free fatty acids and lysophospholipids, modify the function of membrane proteins including ion channels. Such alterations can occur through signal transduction pathways, but may also result from "direct" effects of the metabolite on the protein. To investigate possible mechanisms for such direct effects, we examined the alterations of(More)
At submicromolar concentrations, capsaicin specifically activates the TRPV1 receptor involved in nociception. At micro- to millimolar concentrations, commonly used in clinical and in vitro studies, capsaicin also modulates the function of a large number of seemingly unrelated membrane proteins, many of which are similarly modulated by the capsaicin(More)
Hydrophobic interactions between lipid bilayers and imbedded membrane proteins couple protein conformation to the mechanical properties of the bilayer. This coupling is widely assumed to account for the regulation of membrane protein function by the membrane lipids' propensity to form nonbilayer phases, which will produce a curvature stress in the bilayer.(More)
Membrane protein function is regulated by the host lipid bilayer composition. This regulation may depend on specific chemical interactions between proteins and individual molecules in the bilayer, as well as on non-specific interactions between proteins and the bilayer behaving as a physical entity with collective physical properties (e.g. thickness,(More)
Xanomeline is a muscarinic M(1)/M(4) preferring receptor agonist with little or no affinity for dopamine receptors. The compound reduces psychotic-like symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and exhibits an antipsychotic-like profile in rodents without inducing extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) at therapeutically relevant doses. In the present study,(More)
Many drugs are amphiphiles that, in addition to binding to a particular target protein, adsorb to cell membrane lipid bilayers and alter intrinsic bilayer physical properties (e.g., bilayer thickness, monolayer curvature, and elastic moduli). Such changes can modulate membrane protein function by altering the energetic cost (DeltaG(bilayer)) of bilayer(More)
Membrane proteins are regulated by the lipid bilayer composition. Specific lipid-protein interactions rarely are involved, which suggests that the regulation is due to changes in some general bilayer property (or properties). The hydrophobic coupling between a membrane-spanning protein and the surrounding bilayer means that protein conformational changes(More)