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At submicromolar concentrations, capsaicin specifically activates the TRPV1 receptor involved in nociception. At micro- to millimolar concentrations, commonly used in clinical and in vitro studies, capsaicin also modulates the function of a large number of seemingly unrelated membrane proteins, many of which are similarly modulated by the capsaicin(More)
Lipid metabolites, free fatty acids and lysophospholipids, modify the function of membrane proteins including ion channels. Such alterations can occur through signal transduction pathways, but may also result from "direct" effects of the metabolite on the protein. To investigate possible mechanisms for such direct effects, we examined the alterations of(More)
Many drugs are amphiphiles that, in addition to binding to a particular target protein, adsorb to cell membrane lipid bilayers and alter intrinsic bilayer physical properties (e.g., bilayer thickness, monolayer curvature, and elastic moduli). Such changes can modulate membrane protein function by altering the energetic cost (DeltaG(bilayer)) of bilayer(More)
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a severe side effect of traditional neuroleptics affecting a considerable number of schizophrenic patients. Accumulating evidence suggests the existence of a genetic disposition to TD and other extra pyramidal symptoms (EPS) most strongly linked to a ser/gly polymorphism in position 9 of the D3 dopamine receptor gene (DRD3). The(More)
Brain cortical water spaces were determined in rat brain following an intraperitoneal infusion of distilled water (15% of body weight). Total water content was determined by gravimetric methods while the size of the interstitial space and the interstitial ion concentrations were measured by ion-selective microelectrodes. Ion content of brain gray matter and(More)
The function of the central nervous system-and other organs-depends upon preservation of ionic gradients across cell membranes. In nervous tissue, the ion gradients are especially important since generation of action potentials and synaptic processes relies on transfer of ions across the plasma membrane. This report describes the fact that anoxia profoundly(More)
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