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Pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) is a glycolysis enzyme catalyzing conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to pyruvate by transferring a phosphate from PEP to ADP. We report here that PKM2 localizes to the cell nucleus. The levels of nuclear PKM2 correlate with cell proliferation. PKM2 activates transcription of MEK5 by phosphorylating stat3 at Y705. In(More)
Over the last few years, there has been a dramatic increase in the use of cDNA microarrays to monitor gene expression changes in biological systems. Data from these experiments are usually transformed into expression ratios between experimental samples and a common reference sample for subsequent data analysis. The accuracy of this critical transformation(More)
Quantitative analysis of Ca(2+) fluctuations in the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) is essential to defining the mechanisms of Ca(2+)-dependent signaling under physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we developed a unique class of genetically encoded indicators by designing a Ca(2+) binding site in the EGFP. One of them, calcium sensor(More)
Calmodulin (CaM) has been implicated in mediating the Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of gap junctions. This report identifies a CaM-binding motif comprising residues 136-158 in the intracellular loop of Cx43. A 23-mer peptide encompassing this CaM-binding motif was shown to bind Ca(2+)-CaM with 1:1 stoichiometry by using various biophysical approaches,(More)
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that has an extracellular bilobed venus flytrap domain (VFTD) predicted to contain five calcium (Ca(2+))-binding sites. To elucidate the structure-function relationships of the VFTD, we investigated 294 unrelated probands with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH), neonatal severe(More)
The EF-hand protein with a helix-loop-helix Ca(2+) binding motif constitutes one of the largest protein families and is involved in numerous biological processes. To facilitate the understanding of the role of Ca(2+) in biological systems using genomic information, we report, herein, our improvement on the pattern search method for the identification of(More)
Polymorphic markers within the CTLA4 gene on chromosome 2q33 have been shown to be associated with type 1 diabetes. Therefore, a gene responsible for the disease (IDDM12) most likely lies within a region of <1-2 cM of CTLA4. To define more precisely the IDDM12 interval, we genotyped a multiethnic (U.S. Caucasian, Mexican-American, French, Spanish, Korean,(More)
Cx50 (connexin50), a member of the α-family of gap junction proteins expressed in the lens of the eye, has been shown to be essential for normal lens development. In the present study, we identified a CaMBD [CaM (calmodulin)-binding domain] (residues 141-166) in the intracellular loop of Cx50. Elevations in intracellular Ca2+ concentration effected a 95%(More)
Ca(2+)-sensing receptors (CaSRs) represent a class of receptors that respond to changes in the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](o)) and activate multiple signaling pathways. A major barrier to advancing our understanding of the role of Ca(2+) in regulating CaSRs is the lack of adequate information about their Ca(2+)-binding locations, which is(More)
Gene expression analysis using high-throughput microarray technology has become a powerful approach to study systems biology. The exponential growth in microarray experiments has spawned a number of investigations into the reliability and reproducibility of this type of data. However, the sample size requirements necessary to obtain statistically(More)