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Most of the species of fungi that cause disease in mammals, including Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A), are exogenous and non-contagious. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is associated worldwide with avian and arboreal habitats. This airborne, opportunistic pathogen is profoundly neurotropic and the leading cause of fungal meningitis.(More)
Compared to the incidence in adults, cryptococcosis is inexplicably rare among children, even in sub-Saharan Africa, which has the highest prevalence of coinfection with HIV and Cryptococcus neoformans. To explore any mycological basis for this age-related difference in the incidence of cryptococcosis, we investigated isolates of C. neoformans recovered(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of three enteric viruses, namely rotavirus, adenovirus and astrovirus, as agents of diarrhoea in and around Gaborone, Botswana. DESIGN The sample were categorised into four groups according to the age of the patient: 0-3 months, 4-6 months, 7-12 months and 25-60 months. Total monthly samples across age groups formed(More)
A young man had a congenital sinus of Valsalva aneurysm originating from the right coronary sinus, complicated by fistulas draining into both right atrium and right ventricle, as well as a congenitally abnormal aortic valve with mild aortic insufficiency. His dramatic clinical presentation, with the sudden appearance of severe biventricular cardiac failure(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe findings from an external quality assessment programme involving laboratories in Africa that routinely investigate epidemic-prone diseases. METHODS Beginning in 2002, the Regional Office for Africa of the World Health Organization (WHO) invited national public health laboratories and related facilities in Africa to participate in the(More)
Three groups of male Wistar rats were exposed to low concentrations of lead during different phases of their development for periods of 21 days. Exposure was initiated at conception (group I), at parturition (group II), or after weaning had occurred (group III). Mean brain lead levels achieved immediately after exposure were 1.07 +/- 0.15, 0.84 +/- 0.06,(More)
Human brucellosis in South Africa (SA) is under-diagnosed and under-reported. This is because many clinicians have little or no experience in managing affected patients, and in part because of the nonspecific and insidious nature of the disease. A case of human brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis in a patient from the Western Cape Province of SA is(More)
Electron microscopy of citrate-phosphatedextrose (CPD) buffered bank blood performed over 21 days shows that the normal architecture of erythrocytes, platelets and leucocytes disappears and that deformed organelles, leucocyte “ghosts”, cell fragments and microaggregates accumulate. Leucocytes and platelets emerge as the most sensitive indicators of blood(More)
A 33-year-old white man had exertional angina pectoris, followed by angina pectoris at rest, and then episodes of ischaemic acute pulmonary oedema associated with angina pectoris. Selective coronary angiography delineated an isolated long-segment stenosis of the left mainstem coronary artery with no other lesions. We believe that the mainstem obstruction(More)