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We show that GAA instability in Friedreich's Ataxia is a DNA-directed mutation caused by improper DNA structure at the repeat region. Unlike CAG or CGG repeats, which form hairpins, GAA repeats form a YRY triple helix containing non-Watson-Crick pairs. As with hairpins, triplex mediates intergenerational instability in 96% of transmissions. In families with(More)
Methods for targeting of small molecules to cellular proteins can allow imaging with fluorophores that are smaller, brighter, and more photostable than fluorescent proteins. Previously, we reported targeting of the blue fluorophore coumarin to cellular proteins fused to a 13-amino acid recognition sequence (LAP), catalyzed by a mutant of the Escherichia(More)
Chemical fluorophores offer tremendous size and photophysical advantages over fluorescent proteins but are much more challenging to target to specific cellular proteins. Here, we used Rosetta-based computation to design a fluorophore ligase that accepts the red dye resorufin, starting from Escherichia coli lipoic acid ligase. X-ray crystallography showed(More)
Advances in synthetic chemistry, structural biology, molecular modelling and molecular cloning have enabled the systematic functional manipulation of transmembrane proteins. By combining genetically manipulated proteins with light-sensitive ligands, innately 'blind' neurobiological receptors can be converted into photoreceptors, which allows them to be(More)
This protocol describes an efficient method to site-specifically label cell-surface or purified proteins with chemical probes in two steps: probe incorporation mediated by enzymes (PRIME) followed by chelation-assisted copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). In the PRIME step, Escherichia coli lipoic acid ligase (LplA) site-specifically(More)
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