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Deregulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway either through loss of PTEN or mutation of the catalytic subunit alpha of PI3K (PIK3CA) occurs frequently in human cancer. We identified PIK3CA mutations in 26% of 342 human breast tumor samples and cell lines at about equal frequency in tumor stages I to IV. To investigate the relationship(More)
The crucial need for long-lived and autonomous operation has elevated power and energy consumption to primary optimization metrics during wireless sensor network design. While most work in the field of power management and low-power design has focused on optimizing the energy consumer (i.e., the sensor node, including its hardware, software, applications,(More)
Phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor and an antagonist of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway. We identified a 576-amino acid translational variant of PTEN, termed PTEN-Long, that arises from an alternative translation start site 519 base pairs upstream of the ATG initiation sequence, adding 173 N-terminal(More)
Lesions of ERBB2, PTEN, and PIK3CA activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway during cancer development by increasing levels of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP(3)). 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is the first node of the PI3K signal output and is required for activation of AKT. PIP(3) recruits PDK1 and AKT to the(More)
Cranial radiation can impact the cerebral vasculature in many ways, with a wide range of clinical manifestations. The incidence of these late effects including cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs), lacunar lesions, vascular occlusive disease including moyamoya syndrome, vascular malformations, and hemorrhage is not well known. This article reviews the(More)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to be an important, possibly essential, component of the process of tumor dissemination and metastasis. About 20%-30% of Hras mutant mouse skin carcinomas induced by chemical initiation/promotion protocols have undergone EMT. Reduced exposure to TPA-induced chronic inflammation causes a dramatic reduction(More)
Glioblastomas are highly lethal brain tumors containing tumor-propagating glioma stem cells (GSCs). The molecular mechanisms underlying the maintenance of the GSC phenotype are not fully defined. Here we demonstrate that the zinc finger and X-linked transcription factor (ZFX) maintains GSC self-renewal and tumorigenic potential by upregulating c-Myc(More)
In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, four members of the importin-beta family of nuclear carriers, Xpo1p/Crm1p, Cse1p, Msn5p and Los1p, function as exporters of protein and tRNA. Under normal growth conditions GFP-tagged exporters are predominantly associated with nuclei. The presence of Snf1 kinase, a key regulator of cell growth and a metabolic(More)
Different cancer cell compartments often communicate through soluble factors to facilitate tumor growth. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are a subset of tumor cells that resist standard therapy to contribute to disease progression. How GSCs employ a distinct secretory program to communicate with and nurture each other over the nonstem tumor cell (NSTC) population(More)
OBJECTIVE The impact of the stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) prescription dose (PD) on local progression and radiation necrosis for small (≤ 2 cm) brain metastases was evaluated. METHODS An institutional review board-approved retrospective review was performed on 896 patients with brain metastases ≤ 2 cm (3034 tumors) who were treated with 1229 SRS(More)