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BACKGROUND & AIMS Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator of intestinal inflammation. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is the main source of NO in inflammation. Because iNOS is ubiquitously expressed, our aim was to determine which cellular source(s) of iNOS plays the central role in mediating intestinal inflammation. METHODS Chimeric lines were produced(More)
Polymer coatings are essential for local delivery of drug from the stent platform. In designing a DES, it is critical to balance the hydrophilic and hydrophobic components of the polymer system to obtain optimal biocompatibility, while maintaining controlled drug elution. This study investigates the impact of polymer composition of the BioLinx polymer blend(More)
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can be directed to differentiate into a number of endoderm cell types, however mature functional cells have yet to be produced in vitro. This suggests that there may be important factors that have yet to be described, which may be essential for the proper derivation of these cells. One such factor is the integrin mediated(More)
Electrostatics continues to play an important role in pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation. Despite its ubiquitous nature, the charging process is complex and not well understood. Nonetheless, significant advances in the past few years continue to improve understanding and lead to better control of electrostatics. The purpose of this critical review is to(More)
This study aimed to characterize inherent charge generated by micron-sized drug-only formulations of amorphous and crystalline salbutamol sulfate (SS). Amorphous SS was produced by spray-drying whilst crystalline SS was produced by conditioning spray-dried SS with supercritical CO2 and menthol. Electrostatic charge of the powders was characterized in two(More)
Dry powder inhalers have become increasingly attractive for pulmonary delivery of locally and systemically effective medications. In comparison to the liquid counterparts, such as nebulisation and pressurised metered dose inhalers, the powder form generally offers better chemical stability, improved portability and potentially superior patient adherence.(More)
The Bipolar Charge Analyzer (BOLAR) was evaluated for measuring bipolar electrostatic charge and mass distributions of powder aerosols generated from a dry powder inhaler. Mannitol powder (5, 10, and 20 mg) was dispersed using an Osmohaler inhaler into the BOLAR at air flow rates of 30 or 60 L/min. As the aerosol sample was drawn through the BOLAR, the air(More)
Inhaled pharmaceuticals are formulated and delivered differently according to the therapeutic indication. However, specific device-formulation coupling is often fickle, and new medications or indications also demand new strategies. The discontinuation of chlorofluorocarbon propellants has seen replacement of older metered dose inhalers with dry powder(More)