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In Xenopus, convergence and extension are produced by active intercalation of the deep mesodermal cells between one another along the mediolateral axis (mediolateral cell intercalation), to form a narrower, longer array. The cell motility driving this intercalation is poorly understood. A companion paper shows that the endodermal epithelium organizes the(More)
There is great interest in the patterning and morphogenesis of the vertebrate nervous system, but the morphogenetic movements involved in early neural development and their underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly understood. This paper describes the cellular basis of the early neural morphogenesis of Xenopus laevis. The results have important implications(More)
To contribute to an understanding of the roles and mechanisms of action of Wnts in early vertebrate development, we have characterized the normal expression of Xenopus laevis Wnt-5A, and investigated the consequences of misexpression of this putative signalling factor. Xwnt-5A transcripts are expressed throughout development, and are enriched in both the(More)
In a companion paper (Shih, J. and Keller, R. (1992) Development 116, 901-914), we described a sequence of cell behaviors, called mediolateral intercalation behavior (MIB), that produces mediolateral cell intercalation, the process that drives convergence and extension of the axial and paraxial mesoderm of Xenopus. In this paper, we describe the pattern of(More)
The processes thought to function in Xenopus gastrulation include bottle cell formation, migration of cells on the roof of the blastocoel, and autonomous convergent extension of the circumblastoporal region. A review of recent and classical results shows that only the last accounts for the bulk of the tissue displacement of gastrulation, including spreading(More)
This paper demonstrates that convergence and extension within the neural plate of Xenopus laevis are regulated by planar inductive interactions with the adjacent Spemann organizer. The companion article (Keller et al.: Developmental Dynamics 193:199-217, 1992) showed that the prospective hindbrain and spinal cord occupy a very short and very wide area just(More)
PURPOSE While rearing chicks in constant light (CL) inhibits anterior segment growth, these conditions also induce excessive enlargement of the vitreous chamber. The mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood although it has been speculated that the enlarged vitreous chambers are a product of emmetropization, a compensatory response to the(More)
Glutamate transport is a critical process in the brain that maintains low extracellular levels of glutamate to allow for efficient neurotransmission and prevent excitotoxicity. Loss of glutamate transport function is implicated in epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It remains unclear whether or not glutamate transport can(More)
The appearance of the embryonic shield, a slight thickening at the leading edge of the blastoderm during the formation of the germ ring, is one of the first signs of dorsoventral polarity in the zebrafish embryo. It has been proposed that the shield plays a role in fish embryo patterning similar to that attributed to the amphibian dorsal lip. In a recent(More)
The zebrafish has emerged as an important model system for the experimental analysis of vertebrate development because it is amenable to genetic analysis and because its optical clarity allows the movements and the differentiation of individual cells to be followed in vivo. In this paper, we have sought to characterize the spatial distribution of tissue(More)