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Regeneration of sensory hair cells in the mature avian inner ear was first described just over 20 years ago. Since then, it has been shown that many other non-mammalian species either continually produce new hair cells or regenerate them in response to trauma. However, mammals exhibit limited hair cell regeneration, particularly in the auditory epithelium.(More)
Inner ear epithelia of mature birds regenerate hair cells after ototoxic or acoustic insult. The lack of markers that selectively label cells in regenerating epithelia and of culture systems composed primarily of progenitor cells has hampered the identification of cellular and molecular interactions that regulate hair cell regeneration. In control basilar(More)
Unlike mammals, birds regenerate auditory hair cells (HCs) after injury. During regeneration, mature non-sensory supporting cells (SCs) leave quiescence and convert into HCs, through non-mitotic or mitotic mechanisms. During embryogenesis, Notch ligands from nascent HCs exert lateral inhibition, restricting HC production. Here, we examined whether Notch(More)
We carried out an analysis of the expression of Prox1, a homeo-domain transcription factor, during mouse inner ear development with particular emphasis on the auditory system. Prox1 is expressed in the otocyst beginning at embryonic day (E)11, in the developing vestibular sensory patches. Expression is down regulated in maturing (myosin VIIA immunoreactive)(More)
Hair cells, the sensory receptors of the auditory, vestibular, and lateral-line organs, may be damaged by a number of agents including aminoglycoside antibiotics and severe overstimulation. In the avian cochlea, lost hair cells can be replaced by regeneration. These new hair cells appear to be derived from a support cell precursor which is stimulated to(More)
Hair cell-selective antibodies were used in combination with the nucleotide bromode-oxyuridine (BrdU) to examine the temporal, spatial, and morphologic progression of auditory hair cell regeneration in chicks after a single gentamicin injection. New hair cells are first identifiable with an antibody to class III beta (beta) tubulin (TuJ1) by 14 hours after(More)
We investigated nucleotide-labeling patterns during ongoing hair cell regeneration in the avian vestibular epithelium and during drug-induced regeneration in the avian auditory epithelium. For utricle experiments, post-hatch chicks received an injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and were allowed to survive from 2 hours to 110 days after the injection.(More)
We developed a transgenic mouse to permit conditional and selective ablation of hair cells in the adult mouse utricle by inserting the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) gene into the Pou4f3 gene, which encodes a hair cell-specific transcription factor. In adult wild-type mice, administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) caused no significant hair cell loss.(More)
The capacity of adult mammals to regenerate sensory hair cells is not well defined. To explore early steps in this process, we examined reactivation of a transiently expressed developmental gene, Atoh1, in adult mouse utricles after neomycin-induced hair cell death in culture. Using an adenoviral reporter for Atoh1 enhancer, we found that Atoh1(More)
Pure-tone overstimulation for prolonged time leads to hair cell death in frequency-specific regions of the cochlear epithelium. Unlike mammals, birds replace missing hair cells by stimulating mitosis in an uncharacterized precursor cell. Regenerated hair cells, initially identifiable by their immature stereocilia and small surface areas, differentiate into(More)