Jennifer S. Moylan

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Atrogin1/MAFbx is an ubiquitin ligase that mediates muscle atrophy in a variety of catabolic states. We recently found that H2O2 stimulates atrogin1/MAFbx gene expression. Since the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulates both reactive oxygen production and general activity of the ubiquitin conjugating pathway, we hypothesized that(More)
Underlying the pathogenesis of chronic disease is the state of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is an imbalance in oxidant and antioxidant levels. If an overproduction of oxidants overwhelms the antioxidant defenses, oxidative damage of cells, tissues, and organs ensues. In some cases, oxidative stress is assigned a causal role in disease pathogenesis,(More)
Antigravity muscles atrophy and weaken during prolonged mechanical unloading caused by bed rest or spaceflight. Unloading also induces oxidative stress in muscle, a putative cause of weakness. We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate (BBIC), a soy protein extract, would oppose these changes. Adult mice(More)
Alternatives to the canonical insulin-stimulated pathway for glucose uptake are exercise- and exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS)-stimulated glucose uptake. We proposed a model wherein mechanical loading, i.e. stretch, stimulates production of ROS to activate AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) to increase glucose uptake. Immunoblotting was used to measure(More)
Cancer patients receiving doxorubicin chemotherapy experience both muscle weakness and fatigue. One postulated mediator of the muscle dysfunction is an increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), a proinflammatory cytokine that mediates limb muscle contractile dysfunction through the TNF receptor subtype 1 (TNFR1). Our main hypothesis was that systemic(More)
Sphingomyelinase (SMase) hydrolyzes membrane sphingomyelin into ceramide, which increases oxidants in nonmuscle cells. Serum SMase activity is elevated in sepsis and heart failure, conditions where muscle oxidants are increased, maximal muscle force is diminished, and fatigue is accelerated. We tested the hypotheses that exogenous SMase and accumulation of(More)
Murine models of starvation-induced muscle atrophy demonstrate that reduced protein kinase B (AKT) function upregulates the atrophy-related gene atrogin-1/MAFbx (atrogin). The mechanism involves release of inhibition of Forkhead transcription factors, namely Foxo1 and Foxo3. Elevated atrogin mRNA also corresponds with elevated TNF in inflammatory catabolic(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) diminishes specific force of skeletal muscle. To address the mechanism of this response, we tested the hypothesis that TNF acts via the type 1 (TNFR1) receptor subtype to increase oxidant activity and thereby depress myofibrillar function. Experiments showed that a single intraperitoneal dose of TNF (100 microg/kg)(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is an inflammatory cytokine that has been linked to muscle catabolism, a process regulated by muscle-specific E3 proteins of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. To address cellular mechanism, we tested the hypothesis that IL-1 induces myofibrillar protein loss by acting directly on muscle to increase expression of two critical E3(More)
Doxorubicin, a commonly prescribed chemotherapeutic agent, causes skeletal muscle wasting in cancer patients undergoing treatment and increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. ROS stimulate protein degradation in muscle by activating proteolytic systems that include caspase-3 and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. We hypothesized that(More)