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Histone H2AX phosphorylation on a serine four residues from the carboxyl terminus (producing gammaH2AX) is a sensitive marker for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). DSBs may lead to cancer but, paradoxically, are also used to kill cancer cells. Using gammaH2AX detection to determine the extent of DSB induction may help to detect precancerous cells, to stage(More)
Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure is inevitable in our modern society and can lead to a variety of deleterious effects including cancer and birth defects. A reliable, reproducible and sensitive assessment of exposure to IR and the individual response to that exposure would provide much needed information for the optimal treatment of each donor examined. We(More)
Upon DNA double-strand break (DSB) induction in mammals, the histone H2A variant, H2AX, becomes rapidly phosphorylated at serine 139. This modified form, termed γ-H2AX, is easily identified with antibodies and serves as a sensitive indicator of DNA DSB formation. This review focuses on the potential clinical applications of γ-H2AX detection in cancer and in(More)
Genome stability is essential for maintaining cellular and organismal homeostasis, but it is subject to many threats. One ubiquitous threat is from a class of compounds known as reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can indiscriminately react with many cellular biomolecules including proteins, lipids, and DNA to produce a variety of oxidative lesions. These(More)
This review focuses on a number of recent studies that have examined changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in response to ionizing radiation and other forms of oxidative stress. In both murine and human cells and tissues, a number of miRNAs display significant alterations in expression levels in response to both direct and indirect radiation(More)
DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a key non-homologous-end-joining (NHEJ) nuclear serine/threonine protein kinase involved in various DNA metabolic and damage signaling pathways contributing to the maintenance of genomic stability and prevention of cancer. To examine the role of DNA-PK in processing of non-DSB clustered DNA damage, we have used three(More)
Sixty-one of 1676 lunar rock fragments examined were found to be anorthosites, markedly different in composition, color, and specific gravity from mare basalts and soil breccias. Compositional similiarity to Tycho ejecta analyzed by Surveyor 7 suggests that the anorthosites are samples of highlands material, thrown to Tranquillity Base by cratering events.(More)
Chemotherapy with doxorubicin (Dox) causes dose-limiting cardiotoxicity. We investigated the role that gender has on cardiosensitivity to Dox treatment by evaluating reproductive hormone levels in male, castrated male (c-male), female and ovariectomized female (o-female) adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and expression of mitochondria-related(More)
The recent years have witnessed a rapid accumulation of experimental data showing that ionizing radiation elicits a plethora of biological effects in unirradiated cells receiving bystander signals from hit cells. This so-called radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) manifests in various ways including changes in gene expression, genetic and epigenetic(More)
When cells are exposed to ionizing radiation (IR), unexposed cells that share media with damaged cells exhibit similar effects to irradiated cells including increased levels of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Hypothesizing that this effect, known as the radiation-induced bystander effect, may be a specific instance of communication between damaged and(More)