Jennifer S. Arnold

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BACKGROUND Research-based standards do not exist for the management of gastric residual volumes from feeding tubes. Withdrawing and returning residual volumes can lead to clogged tubes and exposes patients to possible contamination of the feeding system. However, discarding residual volumes may place patients at risk for electrolyte imbalance and may alter(More)
Studies in mammals have found that during breathing the triangularis sterni (TS) muscle regulates expiratory airflow and the end-expiratory position of the rib cage and furthermore that the respiratory activity of this muscle is influenced by a variety of chemical and mechanical stimuli. To assess the role of the TS during coughing and sneezing,(More)
The present study examined the active and passive length-tension relationship of the abdominal expiratory muscles in vitro during electrically stimulated contractions. Studies were performed on isolated strips of transverse abdominis and external oblique muscle from nine adult hamsters with normal lung function. The effect of chronic hyperinflation on the(More)
The present study compared the responses of rib cage and abdominal expiratory muscles to chemical and mechanical stimuli. In pentobarbital-anesthetized spontaneously breathing dogs, electromyograms (EMG) were recorded from the triangularis sterni (TS) and transverse abdominis (TA) muscles using bipolar intramuscular wire electrodes. During resting oxygen(More)
The abdominal muscles accelerate airflow during expiration and may also influence the end-expiratory volume and configuration of the thorax. Although much is known about their electrical activity, the degree to which they change length during the respiratory cycle has not been previously assessed. In the present study we measured respiratory changes in(More)
The present study examined the effect of theophylline on the shortening velocity of submaximally activated diaphragmatic muscle (i.e., muscles were activated by the use of a level of stimulation, 50 Hz, within the range of phrenic neural firing frequencies achieved during breathing, whereas maximum activation is achieved at 300 Hz). Experiments were(More)
The purpose of the present study was to assess the mechanical behavior of an expiratory muscle during defensive reflexes. Transversus abdominis muscle length changes were measured using sonomicrometry in anesthetized dogs. The abdominal muscle lengthened during the inspiratory phase and shortened at a rapid velocity during the expiratory portion of coughs(More)
The present study examined the intrinsic contractile properties and endurance of the transverse abdominis and external oblique abdominal expiratory muscles in adult hamsters and compared their performance with the diaphragm. Experiments were performed in vitro on isolated bundles of muscle stimulated electrically. In control animals peak twitch tension was(More)
The present study examined the effects of elastase-induced emphysema on the structure of the external oblique and transverse abdominis muscles and a non-respiratory muscle, the extensor digitorum longus. Muscle structure was assessed from the cross-sectional area (CSA) and percent of individual fiber types in histochemically stained sections and from the(More)