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OBJECTIVES To determine the safety and efficacy of the nicotine patch and gum for adolescents who want to quit smoking. DESIGN Double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, 3-arm trial with a nicotine patch (21 mg), nicotine gum (2 and 4 mg), or a placebo patch and gum; all participants received cognitive-behavioral group therapy. SETTING Inner-city,(More)
Although commonly assessed with unidimensional scales, craving has been suggested to be multifaceted and to have a complex relationship with drug use and relapse. This study assessed the consistency and predictive validity of unidimensional and multidimensional craving scales. At the beginning of a 12-week outpatient treatment trial, opiate users (n = 101)(More)
To test whether a combination of contingency management and methadone dose increase would promote abstinence from heroin and cocaine, we conducted a randomized controlled trial using a 2 x 3 (dosexcontingency) factorial design in which dose assignment was double-blind. Participants were 252 heroin- and cocaine-abusing outpatients on methadone maintenance.(More)
Features of tobacco dependence vary by ethnicity, which could be partially due to measurement bias inherent in instruments that assess nicotine dependence. This study compared responses on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) by African American adolescents (n = 478) with those of White adolescents (n = 661) seeking smoking cessation(More)
We compared two strategies of prize-based contingency management (CM) in methadone-maintained outpatients. Urine was tested thrice weekly for 5 weeks pre-CM, 12 weeks CM, and 8 weeks post-CM. Participants were randomly assigned to a cocaine contingency (four prize draws for each cocaine-negative urine, N=29) or an opiate-cocaine contingency (one draw for(More)
In order to evaluate the effect of frequency of counseling sessions, we studied retention, cocaine use and craving, and psychiatric symptoms of 68 cocaine-dependent outpatients randomly assigned to twice weekly, once weekly, or biweekly sessions in a 12-week treatment program that utilized manual-based, individual cognitive behavioral psychotherapy. All(More)
BACKGROUND Buprenorphine is under investigation as a pharmacotherapeutic agent for treating opioid dependence in pregnant women. We hypothesized that there would be a relationship between the cumulative maternal dose of buprenorphine during pregnancy and the concentration of buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine in maternal and infant hair. METHODS This(More)
Data from 2 contingency management trials, targeting opiate or cocaine use, were used to investigate whether noncontingent vouchers inadvertently reinforce drug use. The control group in each trial received noncontingent vouchers matched in value and frequency to those received by experimental groups, but independent of urinalysis. Vouchers were offered(More)
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