The ability of influenza A viruses (IAVs) to cross species barriers and evade host immunity is a major public health concern. Studies on the phylodynamics of IAVs across different scales - from the individual to the population - are essential for devising effective measures to predict, prevent or contain influenza emergence. Understanding how IAVs spread… (More)
A stochastic model of equine influenza (EI) is constructed to assess the risk of an outbreak in a Thoroughbred population at a typical flat race training yard. The model is parameterised using data from equine challenge experiments conducted by the Animal Health Trust (relating to the latent and infectious period of animals) and also published data on… (More)
Understanding the influence of non-susceptible hosts on vector-borne disease transmission is an important epidemiological problem. However, investigation of its impact can be complicated by uncertainty in the location of the hosts. Estimating the risk of transmission of African horse sickness (AHS) in Great Britain (GB), a virus transmitted by Culicoides… (More)
During 2007, large outbreaks of equine influenza (EI) caused by Florida sublineage Clade 1 viruses affected horse populations in Japan and Australia. The likely protection that would be provided by two modern vaccines commercially available in the European Union (an ISCOM-based and a canarypox-based vaccine) at the time of the outbreaks was determined.… (More)
Influenza A viruses of the H3N8 subtype are a major cause of respiratory disease in horses. Subclinical infection with virus shedding can occur in vaccinated horses, particularly where there is a mismatch between the vaccine strains and the virus strains circulating in the field. Such infections contribute to the spread of the disease. Rapid diagnostic… (More)
Mathematical modelling of infectious disease is increasingly regarded as an important tool in the development of disease prevention and control measures. This article brings together key findings from various modelling studies conducted over the past 10 years that are of relevance to those on the front line of the battle against equine influenza.
There are many open questions with respect to theory and empirical support for methods used in college teaching, especially when technology is incorporated into instruction. In this article, we report the results of a study of a multimedia-based instructional tool called Content Acquisition Podcasts (CAPs) that provides university instructors with a tool… (More)
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY There are few published data to support the ages of emergence of permanent dentition widely reported in horses. OBJECTIVES To clarify the chronology and sequence of permanent premolar (PM) tooth emergence in Thoroughbred racehorses. METHODS A prospective study was undertaken in which records were kept of deciduous PM 'cap'… (More)