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A nonimmune library of 10(9) human antibody scFv fragments has been cloned and expressed on the surface of yeast, and nanomolar-affinity scFvs routinely obtained by magnetic bead screening and flow-cytometric sorting. The yeast library can be amplified 10(10)-fold without measurable loss of clonal diversity, allowing its effectively indefinite expansion.(More)
UNLABELLED Targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging is increasingly being recognized as a powerful imaging tool for the detection and quantification of tumor angiogenesis at the molecular level. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new class of targeting ligands for targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of tumor angiogenesis with(More)
There is a critical need for compounds that target cell surface integrin receptors for applications in cancer therapy and diagnosis. We used directed evolution to engineer the Ecballium elaterium trypsin inhibitor (EETI-II), a knottin peptide from the squash family of protease inhibitors, as a new class of integrin-binding agents. We generated(More)
A series of novel chemically defined soluble oligomers of the human MHC class II protein HLA-DR1 was constructed to probe the molecular requirements for initiation of T cell activation. MHC dimers, trimers, and tetramers stimulated T cells, as measured by upregulation of the activation markers CD69 and CD25, and by internalization of activated T cell(More)
We describe the design and fabrication of an artificial cornea based on a photolithographically patterned hydrogel construct, and demonstrate the adhesion of corneal epithelial and fibroblast cells to its central and peripheral components, respectively. The design consists of a central "core" optical component and a peripheral tissue-integrable "skirt." The(More)
T cells are activated via engagement of their cell-surface receptors with molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) displayed on another cell surface. This process, which is a key step in the recognition of foreign antigens by the immune system, involves oligomerization of receptor components. Recent characterization of the T-cell response to(More)
Class I MHC tetramers have proven to be invaluable tools for following and deciphering the CD8(+) T cell response, but the development of similar reagents for detection of CD4(+) T cells based on class II MHC proteins has been more difficult. We evaluated fluorescent streptavidin-based oligomers of HLA-DR1 for use as reagents to analyze Ag-specific human(More)
The extracellular domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-ECD) has been engineered through directed evolution and yeast surface display using conformationally-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as screening probes for proper folding and functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An EGFR mutant with four amino acid changes exhibited(More)
There is a critical need for molecular imaging agents to detect cell surface integrin receptors that are present in human cancers. Previously, we used directed evolution to engineer knottin peptides that bind with high affinity ( approximately 10 to 30 nmol/L) to integrin receptors that are overexpressed on the surface of tumor cells and the tumor(More)
Individual domains from extracellular proteins are potential reagents for biochemical characterization of ligand/receptor interactions and antibody binding sites. Here, we describe an approach for the identification and characterization of stable protein domains with cell surface display in Saccharomyces cerevesiae, using the epidermal growth factor(More)