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A nonimmune library of 10(9) human antibody scFv fragments has been cloned and expressed on the surface of yeast, and nanomolar-affinity scFvs routinely obtained by magnetic bead screening and flow-cytometric sorting. The yeast library can be amplified 10(10)-fold without measurable loss of clonal diversity, allowing its effectively indefinite expansion.(More)
Engagement of antigen receptors on the surface of T-cells with peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins triggers T-cell activation in a mechanism involving receptor oligomerization. Receptor dimerization by soluble MHC oligomers is sufficient to induce several characteristic activation processes in T-cells including internalization(More)
There is a critical need for compounds that target cell surface integrin receptors for applications in cancer therapy and diagnosis. We used directed evolution to engineer the Ecballium elaterium trypsin inhibitor (EETI-II), a knottin peptide from the squash family of protease inhibitors, as a new class of integrin-binding agents. We generated(More)
There is a critical need for molecular imaging agents to detect cell surface integrin receptors that are present in human cancers. Previously, we used directed evolution to engineer knottin peptides that bind with high affinity ( approximately 10 to 30 nmol/L) to integrin receptors that are overexpressed on the surface of tumor cells and the tumor(More)
UNLABELLED Targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging is increasingly being recognized as a powerful imaging tool for the detection and quantification of tumor angiogenesis at the molecular level. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new class of targeting ligands for targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of tumor angiogenesis with(More)
Central nervous system tumors carry grave clinical prognoses due to limited effectiveness of surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapy. Thus, improved strategies for brain tumor visualization and targeted treatment are critically needed. We demonstrate that mouse cerebellar medulloblastoma (MB) can be targeted and illuminated with a fluorescent,(More)
A series of novel chemically defined soluble oligomers of the human MHC class II protein HLA-DR1 was constructed to probe the molecular requirements for initiation of T cell activation. MHC dimers, trimers, and tetramers stimulated T cells, as measured by upregulation of the activation markers CD69 and CD25, and by internalization of activated T cell(More)
BACKGROUND T-cells are activated by engagement of their clonotypic cell surface receptors with peptide complexes of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins, in a poorly understood process that involves receptor clustering on the membrane surface. Few tools are available to study the molecular mechanisms responsible for initiation of activation(More)
Class I MHC tetramers have proven to be invaluable tools for following and deciphering the CD8(+) T cell response, but the development of similar reagents for detection of CD4(+) T cells based on class II MHC proteins has been more difficult. We evaluated fluorescent streptavidin-based oligomers of HLA-DR1 for use as reagents to analyze Ag-specific human(More)
We describe the design and fabrication of an artificial cornea based on a photolithographically patterned hydrogel construct, and demonstrate the adhesion of corneal epithelial and fibroblast cells to its central and peripheral components, respectively. The design consists of a central "core" optical component and a peripheral tissue-integrable "skirt." The(More)