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OBJECTIVE Microchimerism (Mc), originating from bidirectional fetal-maternal cell traffic during pregnancy, has recently been identified in healthy adults and in patients with scleroderma (systemic sclerosis [SSc]). This study was undertaken to investigate the frequency and quantitative levels of maternal Mc (MMc) in healthy women and women with SSc. (More)
Infections caused by biofilms are abundant and highly persistent, displaying phenotypic resistance to high concentrations of antimicrobials and modulating host immune systems. Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, shares these qualities with biofilm infections. To identify genetic determinants of biofilm formation in M. tuberculosis, we(More)
Myelin basic protein-specific CD8(+) T cells can induce central nervous system autoimmunity; however, immune tolerance prevents these autoreactive cells from causing disease. To define the mechanisms that mediate tolerance, we developed two T cell receptor-transgenic mouse lines with different affinities for the H-2K(k)-restricted myelin basic protein(More)
Fetal cells derived from pregnancy can persist in a woman's blood and tissues for decades and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. Transplantation studies based on donor sex mismatch suggest that circulating stem cells can lead to liver regeneration with donor-derived hepatocytes. However, male cells in female liver could derive(More)
In the current study, we investigated human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles in Caucasian women with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a disease that preferentially affects women. Alleles of DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1 were determined by DNA-based HLA typing for women with PBC (n = 72) and healthy women (n = 381). All study subjects were Caucasian. HLA(More)
Increased risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) has been described in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations when the donor is a parous woman. Cells from prior pregnancies are now known to persist in women and could contribute to GVHD. We asked whether male DNA (presumed fetal microchimerism) is present in apheresis products of female(More)
Bacteria are able to adapt to dramatically different microenvironments, but in many organisms, the signaling pathways, transcriptional programs, and downstream physiological changes involved in adaptation are not well-understood. Here, we discovered that osmotic stress stimulates a signaling network in Mycobacterium tuberculosis regulated by the(More)
OBJECTIVE We investigated HLA class II alleles in women with systemic sclerosis (SSc), a rare disease that preferentially affects women. METHODS Specific alleles of DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 were determined by DNA-based HLA typing for women with SSc (n = 102) and healthy women (n = 533). All study subjects were Caucasian. DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 allele frequencies(More)
BACKGROUND Male DNA or cells are often used to measure microchimerism in a woman. In studies of autoimmune diseases male microchimerism is most often attributed to the previous birth of a son. OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency of male microchimerism in healthy women or women with systemic sclerosis who had never given birth to a son. METHODS Real(More)
The innate immune response plays an important but unknown role in host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To define the function of innate immunity during tuberculosis, we evaluated M. tuberculosis replication dynamics during murine infection. Our data show that the early pulmonary innate immune response limits M. tuberculosis replication in a(More)