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Cuttlefish are cephalopod molluscs that achieve dynamic camouflage by rapidly extracting visual information from the background and neurally implementing an appropriate skin (or body) pattern. We investigated how cuttlefish body patterning responses are influenced by contrast and spatial scale by varying the contrast and the size of checkerboard(More)
Starting at least in the 1970s, empirical work suggested that demographic (population) and economic (affluence) forces are the key drivers of anthropogenic stress on the environment. We evaluate the extent to which politics attenuates the effects of economic and demographic factors on environmental outcomes by examining variation in CO2 emissions across US(More)
AIM This paper is a report of a study exploring the experiences of taking medication for older people with dysphagia. BACKGROUND Dysphagia is a common problem, especially amongst older people, and affects ingestion of food, fluids and medicines. With the number of elders in the population increasing, and currently accounting for one-third of prescribing(More)
Swallowing disorders affect a large and growing number of people in the United States, particularly the elderly. An appreciation of the anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology of swallowing disorders allows the practitioner to assess these problems and to make arrangements for their treatment. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to give an overview(More)
AIM The aim of this study was to describe the interventions used by nurses when administering oral medicines to patients with and without dysphagia, to quantify the appropriateness of these interventions and the medicine administration error rate. BACKGROUND The administration of medicines to patients with dysphagia is complex and potentially more error(More)
Medication administration errors are almost twice as frequent in mental health inpatients with swallowing difficulties than those without. Similar research has not been done in non mental-health patients. But dysphagia is a common symptom and this supplement aims to outline and describe the reasoning behind the national guidelines on medication(More)
An infectious diseases unit is potentially an ideal environment in which to carry out research into honey-based dressings. This article looks at the barriers to carrying out case study-based research, and describes the treatment of an elderly gentleman with venous leg ulcers. The patient's wounds improved with the honey-based dressing, but it failed to free(More)
AIMS To explore the expectations of final year nursing students before they start employment and to describe the experiences of newly graduated nurses during their first six months of employment as registered nurses. BACKGROUND Nursing shortages are at crisis point world wide with registered nurses leaving the profession at a high rate and changing(More)
The results of a small-scale observational study and a root cause analysis were used to describe the types of errors that occur in medication administration to patients with dysphagia and identify possible solutions. Patients with dysphagia in four UK hospitals were shown to be three times more likely to experience medication administration errors than(More)