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The development of social familiarity in rodents depends predominantly on olfactory cues and can critically influence reproductive success. Researchers have operationally defined this memory by a reliable decrease in olfactory investigation in repeated or prolonged encounters with a conspecific. Brain oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) seem to modulate a(More)
Oxytocin (OT) knock-out mice fail to recognize familiar conspecifics after repeated social exposures, despite normal olfactory and spatial learning abilities. OT treatment fully restores social recognition. Here we demonstrate that OT acts in the medial amygdala during the initial exposure to facilitate social recognition. OT given before, but not after,(More)
All social relationships are dependent on an organism's ability to remember conspecifics. Social memory may be a unique form of memory, critical for reproduction, territorial defense, and the establishment of dominance hierarchies in a natural context. In the laboratory, social memory can be assessed reliably by measuring the reduction in investigation of a(More)
Previous studies have shown that oxytocin (OT)-deficient female mice produced by homologous recombination fail to lactate but exhibit normal parturition and reproductive behaviors. We examined the ultrasonic vocalizations of infant mice and the subsequent aggressive and fear behavior of adult male OT knockout (OT-KO) mice. Infant OT-KO mice were less vocal(More)
 Late onset vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) from chronic neuroleptic treatment have been used as a rat model of tardive dyskinesia (TD). Early onset VCMs have also been observed, raising questions about the validity of this model. To assess the relationship between these two types of VCMs, pharmacological and neurochemical properties of early and late(More)
Most antipsychotic medications produce motoric side effects, including parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia (TD). Correlates of these behaviors in rats (catalepsy and vacuous chewing movements, respectively) were used as a model to assess the usefulness of chronic naloxone administration in symptom reduction. Previous studies have suggested that increased(More)
Although the third heart sound (S3) is well recognized as an important sign in the evaluation of patients with congestive heart failure, the interobserver variability with its observation needs to be known before general applicability can be determined. Therefore, we determined the agreement among four trained observers on the presence of S3 in 81(More)
Long-term administration of neuroleptics to rats produces a syndrome of vacuous chewing movements (VCMs). The validity of the VCM syndrome as a model for tardive dyskinesia (TD) in humans is unclear. This is due, in part, to inconsistencies between studies. Methods for rating VCMs have varied markedly and could account for the inconsistencies. The purpose(More)