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Many studies are uncovering functional roles for long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), yet few have been tested for in vivo relevance through genetic ablation in animal models. To investigate the functional relevance of lncRNAs in various physiological conditions, we have developed a collection of 18 lncRNA knockout strains in which the locus is maintained(More)
BACKGROUND MicroRNAs are required for maintenance of pluripotency as well as differentiation, but since more microRNAs have been computationally predicted in genome than have been found, there are likely to be undiscovered microRNAs expressed early in stem cell differentiation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS SOLiD ultra-deep sequencing identified >10(7)(More)
This article presents current information concerning (a) the structural relationships of the Golgi tendon organ (GTO) with different types of extrafusal muscle fibers; (b) the Gp.Ib reafferent or feedback fibers from the GTO; (c) the way in which these proprioceptors monitor muscle tension and function in parallel processing with other receptors and with(More)
BACKGROUND The frontal lobe has been implicated in the pathology of depression in adults. Through the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy, altered brain choline levels have also been linked to the pathophysiology of affective disorders. METHODS To identify possible alterations in orbitofrontal cortex levels of cytosolic choline in adolescents with and(More)
cdk4 mRNA and protein are constitutively expressed in sea urchin eggs and throughout embryonic development. In contrast, cyclin D mRNA is barely detectable in eggs and early embryos, when the cell cycles consist of alternating S and M phases. Cyclin D mRNA increases dramatically in embryos at the early blastula stage and remains at a constant level(More)
The amount of excitation overflow into a nonactive upper limb can be predicted when the active limb is isometrically contracted during a standardized exercise. Bilateral electromyographic recordings from the biceps brachii and brachialis demonstrated that the amount of excitation overflow in the nonactive limb is between 10 percent and 20 percent of the(More)
Microbial growth in damp indoor environments has been correlated with risks to human health. This study was aimed to determine the cytotoxicity of 1-octen-3-ol (“mushroom alcohol”), a major fungal volatile organic compound (VOC) associated with mushroom and mold odors. Using an airborne exposure technique, human embryonic stem cells were exposed for 1 h to(More)
INTRODUCTION Genetic manipulation of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) has been limited by their general resistance to common methods used to introduce exogenous DNA or RNA. Efficient and high throughput transfection of nucleic acids into hESC would be a valuable experimental tool to manipulate these cells for research and clinical applications. METHODS(More)
This study assessed whether changes in size or time-course of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in motoneurons innervating spastic muscle could induce a greater synaptic response, and thereby contribute to reflex hyperexcitability. We compared motor unit (MU) firing patterns elicited by tendon taps applied to both spastic and contralateral(More)
In everyday life, people use self-control to withhold actions. This ability is particularly important when the consequences of action withholding have an impact on the individual's well-being. Despite its importance, it is unclear as to how the neural nodes implicated in action withholding contribute to this real-world type of self-control. By modifying an(More)