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Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) is largely responsible for discriminating self from pathogenic DNA. However, association of host DNA with autoantibodies activates TLR9, inducing the pathogenic secretion of type I interferons (IFNs) from plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Here, we found that in response to DNA-containing immune complexes (DNA-IC), but not to(More)
Defects in clearance of dying cells have been proposed to underlie the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Mice lacking molecules associated with dying cell clearance develop SLE-like disease, and phagocytes from patients with SLE often display defective clearance and increased inflammatory cytokine production when exposed to dying cells in(More)
Phagocytosis and degradation of photoreceptor outer segments (POS) by retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is fundamental to vision. Autophagy is also responsible for bulk degradation of cellular components, but its role in POS degradation is not well understood. We report that the morning burst of RPE phagocytosis coincided with the enzymatic conversion of(More)
NOD2 receptor and the cytosolic protein kinase RIPK2 regulate NF-κB and MAP kinase signaling during bacterial infections, but the role of this immune axis during viral infections has not been addressed. We demonstrate that Nod2(-/-) and Ripk2(-/-) mice are hypersusceptible to infection with influenza A virus. Ripk2(-/-) cells exhibited defective autophagy(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells play an essential role in innate immune control of poxviral infections in vivo. However, the mechanism(s) underlying NK cell activation and function in response to poxviruses remains poorly understood. In a mouse model of infection with vaccinia virus (VV), the most studied member of the poxvirus family, we identified that the(More)
Recent advances have suggested a crucial role of the innate immunity in shaping adaptive immune responses. How activation of innate immunity promotes adaptive T-cell responses to pathogens in vivo is not fully understood. It has been thought that Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated control of adaptive T-cell responses is mainly achieved by the engagement of(More)
The importance of autophagy in the generation of memory CD8(+) T cells in vivo is not well defined. We report here that autophagy was dynamically regulated in virus-specific CD8(+) T cells during acute infection of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. In contrast to the current paradigm, autophagy decreased in activated proliferating effector(More)
The integrated stress response (ISR) is a homeostatic mechanism by which eukaryotic cells sense and respond to stress-inducing signals, such as amino acid starvation. General controlled non-repressed (GCN2) kinase is a key orchestrator of the ISR, and modulates protein synthesis in response to amino acid starvation. Here we demonstrate in mice that GCN2(More)
Aberrant inflammation has been linked to the development of a diverse spectrum of human diseases. We now appreciate that Toll-like receptor (TLR) and Nod-like receptor (NLR) signaling pathways play an important role in the onset and/or severity of these pathologies, and targeting of these receptors has shown promise in preclinical studies of infectious(More)