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RATIONALE Prenatal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, increased environmental temperature, and hypoxic episodes have been postulated as major risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome. OBJECTIVES To test the hypothesis that maternal CS exposure disrupts eupneic breathing and depresses breathing responses of neonatal rats to thermal and hypoxic challenges.(More)
We report on an upconversion cascade laser in an erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber emitting simultaneously on the three transitions 4 S 3/2 ! At moderate pump powers, the laser transition at 1.6 mm supports 2.7-mm lasing and permits a slope efficiency at 2.7 mm of 15% versus launched pump power. Above the threshold of upconversion lasing at 1.7 mm, the slope(More)
Calls that catalyse group defence, as in the mobbing of predators, appear to facilitate cooperation by recruiting receivers to act collectively. However, even when such signals reliably precede cooperative behaviour, the extent to which the calls function as recruitment signals is unclear. Calls might simply arouse listeners' attention, setting off a(More)
This work was designed to expand on our previous anterior-posterior postural control model to include medial-lateral sway of unperturbed posture during quiet standing. The bidirectional model simulates two decoupled inverted pendulums, each restricted to sway in either the anterior-posterior (AP) direction (ankle strategy) or medial-lateral (ML) direction(More)
Scientific Knowledge on the Subject: Hypoxic episodes and increased body temperature have been proposed as possible triggers for SIDS. How prenatal cigarette smoke exposure, the leading risk factor for SIDS, effects respiratory responses to these triggers is unknown. What This Study Adds to the Field: Increased ambient temperature and hypoxia adversely(More)
We present a preliminary study of combined anterior posterior (AP) and medial lateral (ML) sway assuming a classic inverted pendulum with included subtalar movement. Based on a feedback control posture model in the sagittal plane as presented by Maurer and Peterka, we have investigated parameters needed to model ML sway components. Center of pressure (COP)(More)
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