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Opioid receptors, like other members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, have been shown to associate to form dimers and/or oligomers at the plasma membrane. Whether this association is stable or transient is not known. Recent compelling evidence suggests that at least some GPCRs rapidly associate and dissociate. We have recently calculated(More)
Several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including opioid receptors deltaOR, muOR, and kappaOR, have been reported to form stable dimers or oligomers in lipid bilayers and cell membranes. This notion has been recently challenged by imaging data supporting a transient nature of GPCR association. Here we use umbrella sampling reconstructed free energies(More)
Prolonged morphine treatment induces extensive desensitization of the μ-opioid receptor (μOR) which is the G-protein-coupled receptor that primarily mediates the cellular response to morphine. To date, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is unknown. Here, we have used live cell fluorescence imaging to investigate whether prolonged morphine(More)
Despite many years of dedicated efforts, high-resolution structural determination of membrane proteins lags far behind that of soluble proteins. Computational methods in general, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in particular, have represented important alternative resources over the years to advance understanding of membrane protein structure and(More)
Considerable evidence has accumulated in recent years suggesting that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) associate in the plasma membrane to form homo- and/or heteromers. Nevertheless, the stoichiometry, fraction and lifetime of such receptor complexes in living cells remain topics of intense debate. Motivated by experimental data suggesting differing(More)
Immunoglobulin G4 antibodies exhibit unusual properties with important biological consequences. We report the structure of the human full-length IgG4 S228P anti-PD1 antibody pembrolizumab, solved to 2.3-Å resolution. Pembrolizumab is a compact molecule, consistent with the presence of a short hinge region. The Fc domain is glycosylated at the CH2 domain on(More)
The recent mu-opioid receptor (MOPr) and kappa-opioid receptor (KOPr) crystal structures have inspired hypotheses of physiologically relevant dimerization contacts, specifically: a closely packed interface involving transmembrane (TM) helices TM5 and TM6, and a less compact interface, involving TM1, TM2, and helix 8 (H8). While the former was only found in(More)
Spatial organization of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) into dimers and higher order oligomers has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. The pharmacological readout was shown to depend on the specific interfaces, but why particular regions of the GPCR structure are involved, and how ligand-determined states change them remains unknown. Here we show(More)
Human coagulation factor VIII (fVIII) is inefficiently biosynthesized in vitro and has proven difficult to express at therapeutic levels using available clinical gene-transfer technologies. Recently, we showed that a porcine and certain hybrid human/porcine fVIII transgenes demonstrate up to 100-fold greater expression than human fVIII. In this study, we(More)
Isolated systolic hypertension is common in the elderly, but decreasing systolic blood pressure (SBP) without lowering diastolic blood pressure (DBP) remains a therapeutic challenge. Although stress management training, in particular eliciting the relaxation response, reduces essential hypertension its efficacy in treating isolated systolic hypertension has(More)