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Striking differences in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) risk for AIDS patients who acquire HIV via homosexual activity and those whose HIV infections derive from blood product exposure suggest the presence of a sexually transmitted agent other than HIV in the development of KS. Using an immunofluorescence assay, we examined serum samples from 913 patients for the(More)
RATIONALE Current guidelines limit latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) evaluation to persons in the United States less than or equal to 5 years based on the assumption that high TB rates among recent entrants are attributable to high LTBI reactivation risk, which declines over time. We hypothesized that high postarrival TB rates may instead be caused by(More)
CONTEXT Between 1994 and 2003, tuberculosis (TB) cases in California declined 33% (4834 to 3224). However, in 2003 California reported the largest number of cases in the nation, and over the past decade the proportion of cases with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has not decreased. OBJECTIVE To describe the magnitude, trends, geographic(More)
Population-based surveillance for unexplained death and critical illness possibly due to infectious causes (UNEX) was conducted in four U.S. Emerging Infections Program sites (population 7.7 million) from May 1, 1995, to December 31, 1998, to define the incidence, epidemiologic features, and etiology of this syndrome. A case was defined as death or critical(More)
BACKGROUND The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened a workgroup to revise the tuberculosis (TB) case report in the United States of America (U.S.). The group proposed substantial revisions. Study objectives were to systematically assess the validity and completeness of reported TB case surveillance data in California and to inform TB(More)
To investigate the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of neurosyphilis in a population with high rates of coexisting syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, a retrospective analysis of cases in all San Francisco hospitals from 1985 to 1992 was conducted. Neurosyphilis was defined by a newly reactive cerebrospinal fluid VDRL; 117 patients(More)
To better understand the molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) transmission for culture-confirmed patients <5 years of age, data were analyzed from a population-based study conducted in seven U.S. sites from 1996 to 2000. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were genotyped with IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and(More)
BACKGROUND Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health emergency. We investigated the characteristics and extent of XDR TB in California to inform public health interventions. METHODS XDR TB was defined as TB with resistance to at least isoniazid, rifampin, a fluoroquinolone, and 1 of 3 injectable second-line drugs(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is lengthy, toxic, expensive, and has generally poor outcomes. We undertook an individual patient data meta-analysis to assess the impact on outcomes of the type, number, and duration of drugs used to treat MDR-TB. METHODS AND FINDINGS Three recent systematic reviews were used to identify(More)
From 1997 to 2000, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), three Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), and one black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in the Los Angeles Zoo. DNA fingerprint patterns suggested recent transmission. An investigation found no active cases of tuberculosis in humans; however,(More)