Jennifer M. Flood

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Striking differences in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) risk for AIDS patients who acquire HIV via homosexual activity and those whose HIV infections derive from blood product exposure suggest the presence of a sexually transmitted agent other than HIV in the development of KS. Using an immunofluorescence assay, we examined serum samples from 913 patients for the(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is lengthy, toxic, expensive, and has generally poor outcomes. We undertook an individual patient data meta-analysis to assess the impact on outcomes of the type, number, and duration of drugs used to treat MDR-TB. METHODS AND FINDINGS Three recent systematic reviews were used to identify(More)
BACKGROUND Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health emergency. We investigated the characteristics and extent of XDR TB in California to inform public health interventions. METHODS XDR TB was defined as TB with resistance to at least isoniazid, rifampin, a fluoroquinolone, and 1 of 3 injectable second-line drugs(More)
RATIONALE Current guidelines limit latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) evaluation to persons in the United States less than or equal to 5 years based on the assumption that high TB rates among recent entrants are attributable to high LTBI reactivation risk, which declines over time. We hypothesized that high postarrival TB rates may instead be caused by(More)
BACKGROUND Immigrants to the U.S. are required to undergo overseas screening for tuberculosis (TB), but the value of evaluation and treatment following entry to the U.S. is not well understood. We determined the cost-effectiveness of domestic follow-up of immigrants identified as tuberculosis suspects through overseas screening. METHODS Using a stochastic(More)
CONTEXT Between 1994 and 2003, tuberculosis (TB) cases in California declined 33% (4834 to 3224). However, in 2003 California reported the largest number of cases in the nation, and over the past decade the proportion of cases with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has not decreased. OBJECTIVE To describe the magnitude, trends, geographic(More)
SETTING Importation of infectious tuberculosis (TB) threatens TB control in California and the United States. OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness of an enhanced pre-immigration screening and treatment protocol to prevent the importation of infectious TB. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of immigrants ≥ 15 years of age with TB suspect classifications who(More)
Population-based surveillance for unexplained death and critical illness possibly due to infectious causes (UNEX) was conducted in four U.S. Emerging Infections Program sites (population 7.7 million) from May 1, 1995, to December 31, 1998, to define the incidence, epidemiologic features, and etiology of this syndrome. A case was defined as death or critical(More)
BACKGROUND The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened a workgroup to revise the tuberculosis (TB) case report in the United States of America (U.S.). The group proposed substantial revisions. Study objectives were to systematically assess the validity and completeness of reported TB case surveillance data in California and to inform TB(More)
From 1997 to 2000, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), three Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), and one black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in the Los Angeles Zoo. DNA fingerprint patterns suggested recent transmission. An investigation found no active cases of tuberculosis in humans; however,(More)