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Cerebral aneurysms develop near bifurcation apices, where complex hemodynamics occur: Flow impinges on the apex, accelerates into branches, then slows again distally, creating high wall shear stress (WSS) and positive and negative spatial gradients in WSS (WSSG). Endothelial responses to these kinds of high WSS hemodynamic environments are not well(More)
Cardiovascular pathologies such as intracranial aneurysms (IAs) and atherosclerosis preferentially localize to bifurcations and curvatures where hemodynamics are complex. While extensive knowledge about low wall shear stress (WSS) has been generated in the past, due to its strong relevance to atherogenesis, high WSS (typically >3 Pa) has emerged as a key(More)
BACKGROUND Intracranial aneurysm initiation is poorly understood, although hemodynamic insult is believed to play an important role in triggering the pathology. It has recently been found in a rabbit model that while macrophages are absent during hemodynamic aneurysm initiation, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are elevated and co-localize with smooth(More)
Flow impingement at arterial bifurcations causes high frictional force [or wall shear stress (WSS)], and flow acceleration and deceleration in the branches create positive and negative streamwise gradients in WSS (WSSG), respectively. Intracranial aneurysms tend to form in regions with high WSS and positive WSSG. However, little is known about the responses(More)
Comment. Over 4 years, national performance on D2B times improved dramatically, and these improvements were accompanied by a marked narrowing of racial disparities in D2B times. Improvements may be due to a number of factors, including public reporting of D2B data, the cumulative experience of hospitals performing primary percutaneous coronary intervention,(More)
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