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Itch sensation is one of the major sensory experiences of human and animals. Recent studies have proposed that gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) is a key neurotransmitter for itch in spinal cord. However, no direct evidence is available to indicate that GRP actually mediate responses between primary afferent fibers and dorsal horn neurons. Here we performed(More)
The cold- and menthol-sensing TRPM8 receptor has been proposed to have both nonnociceptive and nociceptive functions. However, one puzzle is how this single type of receptor may be used by somatosensory neurons to code for two distinct sensory modalities. Using acutely dissociated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons without culture, we show that TRPM8(More)
The cold- and menthol-sensitive receptor TRPM8 (transient receptor potential melastatin 8) has been suggested to play a role in cold allodynia, an intractable pain seen clinically. We studied how TRPM8 is involved in cold allodynia using rats with chronic constrictive nerve injury (CCI), a neuropathic pain model manifesting cold allodynia in hindlimbs. We(More)
Using spinal cord slice preparations and patch-clamp recordings in lamina II and lamina V regions, we tested a hypothesis that P2X receptor subtypes differentially modulate glutamate release from primary afferent terminals innervating different sensory regions. We found that activation of P2X receptors by alpha,beta-methylene-ATP increased glutamate release(More)
Menthol and many of its derivatives produce profound sensory and mental effects. The receptor for menthol has been cloned and named cold- and menthol-sensitive receptor-1 (CMR1) or transient receptor potential channel M8 (TRPM8) receptor. Using a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and dorsal horn (DH) coculture system as a model for the first sensory synapse in the(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the need and demand for orthodontic treatment of Chinese school children in Hong Kong. METHODS The material consisted of study casts and questionnaires collected from 765 randomly selected 12-year-old school children in Hong Kong. The need for orthodontic treatment was assessed by the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need, and(More)
Breathing cold air without proper temperature exchange can induce strong respiratory autonomic responses including cough, airway constriction and mucosal secretion, and can exacerbate existing asthma conditions and even directly trigger an asthma attack. Vagal afferent fiber is thought to be involved in the cold-induced respiratory responses through(More)
Divalent metal ions such as copper, manganese, and cobalt are essential for cell development, differentiation, function and survival. These essential metal ions are delivered into intracellular domains as cofactors for enzymes involved in neuropeptide and neurotransmitter synthesis, superoxide metabolism, and other biological functions in a target specific(More)
Sensory systems for detecting tactile stimuli have evolved from touch-sensing nerves in invertebrates to complicated tactile end organs in mammals. Merkel discs are tactile end organs consisting of Merkel cells and Aβ-afferent nerve endings and are localized in fingertips, whisker hair follicles, and other touch-sensitive spots. Merkel discs transduce touch(More)
The finite difference time domain method is used to calculate the specific absorption rate (SAR) due to a butterfly surface coil in a realistic tissue model of the leg. The resulting temperature distribution and temperature changes are found using a finite difference solution to the bioheat transfer equation. Reasonable agreement is found between predicted(More)