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Exposure to high levels of manganese (Mn) results in a neurological condition termed manganism, which is characterized by oxidative stress, abnormal dopamine (DA) signaling, and cell death. Epidemiological evidence suggests correlations with occupational exposure to Mn and the development of the movement disorder Parkinson's disease (PD), yet the molecular(More)
Parkinson disease (PD) and manganism are characterized by motor deficits and a loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Epidemiological studies indicate significant correlations between manganese exposure and the propensity to develop PD. The vertebrate divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1) contributes to maintaining cellular(More)
Aluminum (Al(3+)) is the most prevalent metal in the earth's crust and is a known human neurotoxicant. Al(3+) has been shown to accumulate in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and epidemiological studies suggest correlations between Al(3+) exposure and the propensity to develop both PD and the amyloid plaque-associated disorder(More)
It was found that in Belgium, renal imaging techniques, demonstrating a decreased renal mass of both kidneys combined with either bumpy contours or papillary calcifications, were the only methods to reliably diagnose analgesic nephropathy (AN) in patients with end-stage renal failure. However, these criteria were selected in an area with a high prevalence(More)
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