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Cervical cancer is an important public health problem in many developing countries, where cytology screening has been ineffective. We compared four tests to identify the most appropriate for screening in countries with limited resources. Nineteen midwives screened 5,435 women with visual inspection (VIA) and collected cervical samples for HPV testing,(More)
Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide promise as a key component of future cervical cancer prevention programs in the Latin America and the Caribbean region. The successful introduction and acceptance of these vaccines will depend on a range of factors including awareness of cervical cancer as a problem, affordability of the vaccine,(More)
PURPOSE Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a profibrotic factor that induces extracellular matrix (ECM) production and angiogenesis, two processes involved in diabetic retinopathy (DR). In this study, we examined whether insulin therapy or a CTGF-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) administered to diabetic rats decreased the levels of CTGF and of(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between potential risk factors for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and cofactors for cervical intraepithelial lesions grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) in women attending cervical screening in Amazonian Peru. MATERIALS AND METHODS Participants completed a risk factor questionnaire before screening. High-risk(More)
BACKGROUND Vaginal self-sampling with HPV-DNA tests is a promising primary screening method for cervical cancer. However, women's experiences, concerns and the acceptability of such tests in low-resource settings remain unknown. METHODS In India, Nicaragua, and Uganda, a mixed-method design was used to collect data from surveys (N = 3,863), qualitative(More)
Strategies for introducing or strengthening cervical cancer prevention programs must focus on ensuring that appropriate, cost-effective services are available and that women who most need the services will, in fact, use them. This article summarizes the experiences of research projects in Bolivia, Peru, Kenya, South Africa, and Mexico. Factors that affect(More)
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is a major cause of neurologic infection in Asia, but surveillance has been limited. Three JE immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits have recently been developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate their sensitivity, specificity, and usability using 360 acute-phase serum samples(More)
The authors describe preliminary results from a 2-year demonstration project launched in July 1997 in Washington State to expand access to emergency contraceptive pills by promoting collaboration between pharmacists and independent prescribers in providing emergency contraception (EC). The project was undertaken to improve women's awareness and use of(More)
Operational research using a mixed method, cross-sectional, case-study approach assessed the feasibility and health system impact of large-scale implementation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination into routine vaccine delivery by the Ministry of Health in Peru. The strategy was school-based vaccination of fifth grade girls in 527 primary schools in(More)
Cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major preventable public health problem. Two vaccines are now available for primary prevention of HPV infection and their introduction offers new opportunities to enhance comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control. Currently, HPV vaccine price is a significant barrier to rapid vaccine(More)