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Manganese (Mn) is an essential mineral that at high concentrations can produce an irreversible syndrome resembling Parkinson's disease. To examine the mechanism by which Mn elicits its toxic response, we have selected the rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) as our model system because it possesses much of the biochemical machinery associated with dopaminergic(More)
Many hybridoma and recombinant myeloma cell lines have been successfully adapted to growth in protein-free media. Compared with serum-supplemented media, use of protein-free media promotes superior cell growth and protein expression and facilitates downstream purification of the expressed product. Owing to its sterol auxotrophy, the NS0 myeloma is normally(More)
Potent viral promoters/enhancers are often used to achieve high level expression of ectopic genes in transient transfection analysis. By using a GAL4-responsive transcription assay system, we show that the use of potent eukaryotic expression vectors can lead to biased transcriptional effects. Three functionally diverse transcription factors, YY1, SRF and(More)
Regulated proteolysis has been postulated to be critical for proper control of cell functions. Muscle development, in particular, involves a great deal of structural adaptation and remodeling mediated by proteases. The transcription factor YY1 represses muscle-restricted expression of the sarcomeric alpha-actin genes. Consistent with this repressor function(More)
Mn(2+) treatment has been shown to promote neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This process is mediated through the interactions of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and integrin receptors. Studies were performed to determine whether the phosphorylation of the MAP kinases, ERK1 and 2, is required(More)
Lipids are critical nutrients for high density eukaryotic cell cultivation, but inclusion of lipid components into dry-form media has been technically challenging. Lipid supplements are usually supplied for separate addition after powder reconstitution and filtration, which increases manipulation and risk in a biopharmaceutical manufacturing facility.(More)
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