Jennifer L. S. Willoughby

Learn More
Conjugation of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to an asialoglycoprotein receptor ligand derived from N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) facilitates targeted delivery of the siRNA to hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. The ligands derived from GalNAc are compatible with solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis and deprotection conditions, with synthesis yields(More)
ATTR amyloidosis is a systemic, debilitating and fatal disease caused by transthyretin (TTR) amyloid accumulation. RNA interference (RNAi) is a clinically validated technology that may be a promising approach to the treatment of ATTR amyloidosis. The vast majority of TTR, the soluble precursor of TTR amyloid, is expressed and synthesized in the liver. RNAi(More)
We recently demonstrated that siRNAs conjugated to triantennary N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) induce robust RNAi-mediated gene silencing in the liver, owing to uptake mediated by the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR). Novel monovalent GalNAc units, based on a non-nucleosidic linker, were developed to yield simplified trivalent GalNAc-conjugated(More)
Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) mediated delivery of triantennary N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) conjugated short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to hepatocytes is a promising paradigm for RNAi therapeutics. Robust and durable gene silencing upon subcutaneous administration at therapeutically acceptable dose levels resulted in the advancement of(More)
Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing requires siRNA loading into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Presence of 5'-phosphate (5'-P) is reported to be critical for efficient RISC loading of the antisense strand (AS) by anchoring it to the mid-domain of the Argonaute2 (Ago2) protein. Phosphorylation of exogenous duplex siRNAs is thought to(More)
Efficient gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in vivo requires the recognition and binding of the 5΄- phosphate of the guide strand of an siRNA by the Argonaute protein. However, for exogenous siRNAs it is limited by the rapid removal of the 5΄- phosphate of the guide strand by metabolic enzymes. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of human(More)
The hepatocyte-specific asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) is an ideal candidate for targeted drug delivery to the liver due to its high capacity for substrate clearance from circulation together with its well-conserved expression and function across species. The development of GalNAc-siRNA conjugates, in which a synthetic triantennary(More)
Covalent attachment of a synthetic triantennary N-acetylagalactosamine (GalNAc) ligand to chemically modified siRNA has enabled asialoglycoprotein (ASGPR)-mediated targeted delivery of therapeutically active siRNAs to hepatocytes in vivo. This approach has become transformative for the delivery of RNAi therapeutics as well as other classes of(More)
Overconsumption of high-fat diet (HFD) and sugar-sweetened beverages are risk factors for developing obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease. Here we have dissected mechanisms underlying this association using mice fed either chow or HFD with or without fructose- or glucose-supplemented water. In chow-fed mice, there was no major physiological(More)
  • 1