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A series of triaryl pyrazoles were identified as potent pan antagonists for the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) α, β and γ. X-ray crystallography and structure-based drug design were used to improve selectivity for RARγ by targeting residue differences in the ligand binding pockets of these receptors. This resulted in the discovery of novel antagonists which(More)
OBJECTIVE Investigate a role for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in osteoarthritis (OA)-related pain. DESIGN Neutralizing antibodies to CGRP were generated de novo. One of these antibodies, LY2951742, was characterized in vitro and tested in pre-clinical in vivo models of OA pain. RESULTS LY2951742 exhibited high affinity to both human and rat(More)
The present study examined whether enhancement of endogenous cannabinoid levels by administration of the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 could modulate joint nociception in 2 rodent models of osteoarthritis (OA). OA-like changes were induced in male Wistar rats by intra-articular injection of monoiodoacetate, while Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs(More)
Prostaglandin (PG) E2 plays a critical role in eliciting inflammation. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase, which block PGE2 production, have been used as key agents in treating inflammation and pain associated with arthritis and other conditions. However, these agents have significant side effects such as(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to use microarray technology to: (1) understand the early molecular events underlying the damage of articular cartilage initiated by this surgical procedure, and (2) determine whether these changes mimic those that are occurring in human osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage. DESIGN Cartilage was harvested from both medial(More)
Two new series of EP4 antagonists containing a 3-methylaryl-2-carbonyl core have been identified. One series has a 3-substituted-phenyl core, while the other one incorporates a 3-substituted pyridine. Both series led to compounds with potent activity in functional and human whole blood (hWB) assays. In the pyridine series, compound 7a was found to be a(More)
Continued SAR optimization of a series of 3-methylpyridine-2-carbonyl amino-2,4-dimethyl-benzoic acid led to the selection of compound 4f for clinical studies. Compound 4f showed an IC50 of 123nM for inhibition of PGE2-induced TNFα reduction in an ex vivo LPS-stimulated human whole blood assay (showing >10-fold increase over clinical compound CJ-023,423).(More)
OBJECTIVE Emerging evidence suggests that osteoarthritis (OA) has a neuropathic component; however, the identity of the molecules responsible for this peripheral neuropathy is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of the bioactive lipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to joint neuropathy and pain. DESIGN Male Lewis rats received an(More)
OBJECTIVE Autotaxin is a secreted lysophospholipase that mediates the conversion of lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC) to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive lipid mediator. Autotaxin levels in plasma and synovial fluid correlate with disease severity in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The goal of this study was to develop and characterize a novel(More)
A focused screening strategy identified thienopyrimidine 12 as a cannabinoid receptor type 2 agonist (hCB2) with moderate selectivity over the hCB1 receptor. This initial hit suffered from poor in vitro metabolic stability and high in vivo clearance. Structure-activity relationships describe the optimization and modification to a new more polar series of(More)