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The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) receives primary visceral afferents and sends projections to other autonomic nuclei at all levels of the neuroaxis. However, it is unknown if distinct populations of NTS neurons project to individual autonomic targets or if individual neurons in the NTS project to multiple autonomic targets. Understanding the basic(More)
Leptin and corticotrophin-releasing factor increase sympathetic nervous activity to interscapular brown adipose tissue, kidneys, and adrenal glands. Leptin is known to increase hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that leptin-dependent increases in sympathetic nervous activity are mediated through increases(More)
Agonists of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) can modulate the activity of visceral premotor neurons, including cardiac premotor neurons. Neurons in brainstem regions containing these premotor neurons also contain dense concentrations of the MOR1. This study examined the distribution of MOR1 within two populations of visceral premotor neurons: one located in the(More)
BACKGROUND Notch receptors are normally cleaved during maturation by a furin-like protease at an extracellular site termed S1, creating a heterodimer of non-covalently associated subunits. The S1 site lies within a key negative regulatory region (NRR) of the receptor, which contains three highly conserved Lin12/Notch repeats and a heterodimerization domain(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has protective effects in the heart. We hypothesized that GLP-1 would mitigate coronary microvascular and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction if administered after cardiac arrest and resuscitation (CAR). Eighteen swine were subjected to ventricular fibrillation followed by resuscitation. Swine surviving to return of spontaneous(More)
The endomorphins represent a novel group of endogenous opioid peptides that have high affinity for the mu-opioid receptor (MOR1). Endomorphin-2 is present in high density in the spinal and trigeminal dorsal horns and is localized to primary afferents. If endomorphin-2 were an endogenous ligand for the MOR1, we would expect to find the receptor at cellular(More)
AMPA-type glutamate receptors in the caudal portions of nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) are critical for responses to excitatory afferents from the viscera, including baroreceptors. Using immunocytochemistry combined with electron microscopy, the cellular distributions of different AMPA receptor subunits in the caudal NTS were found to be distinct.(More)
Agmatine, a product of arginine decarboxylation in mammalian cells, is believed to govern cell polyamines by inducing antizyme, which in turn suppresses ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and polyamine uptake. However, since agmatine is structurally similar to the polyamines, it is possible that it exerts antizyme-independent actions on polyamine(More)
Kainate receptors (KARs) are involved in the modulation and transmission of nociceptive information from peripheral afferents to neurons in the spinal cord and trigeminal dorsal horns. KARs are found at both pre- and postsynaptic sites in the dorsal horn. We hypothesized that KARs and Substance P (SP), a modulatory neuropeptide that is used as a marker of(More)
The baroreceptor reflex is critical for homeostatic regulation of blood pressure and is initiated centrally by glutamate release from baroreceptive afferents onto neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract that activates AMPA-type glutamate receptors. The GluR1 subunit of the AMPA receptor is located at postsynaptic sites within the nucleus of the(More)