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Mounting evidence from in vitro experiments indicates that lactate is an efficient energy substrate for neurons and that it may significantly contribute to maintain synaptic transmission, particularly during periods of intense activity. Since lactate does not cross the blood-brain barrier easily, blood-borne lactate cannot be a significant source. In vitro(More)
We measured 24-hour circadian-rhythm patterns of activity and sleep/wake activity in a group of nursing-home patients (58 women and 19 men with a mean age of 85.7 years). Severely demented patients were contrasted with a composite group of moderate y, mild, or not-demented patients. Sleep/wake activity and light exposure were recorded with the Actillume(More)
The debate concerning how many participants represents a sufficient number for interaction testing is well-established and long-running, with prominent contributions arguing that five users provide a good benchmark when seeking to discover interaction problems. We argue that adoption of five users in this context is often done with little understanding of(More)
Arachidonic acid (AA) has recently been shown to influence various cellular functions in the central nervous system. Here we report that AA increases, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, 2-deoxy-D-[1-3H]glucose ([3H]2DG) uptake in primary cultures of astrocytes prepared from the cerebral cortex of neonatal mice. This effect is mimicked by an(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophic factor involved in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. Although the physiological effects of BDNF have been examined in detail, target proteins which mediate its actions remain largely unknown. Here, we report that BDNF stimulates the expression of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)(More)
DsbA, a 21-kDa protein from Escherichia coli, is a potent oxidizing disulfide catalyst required for disulfide bond formation in secreted proteins. The active site of DsbA is similar to that of mammalian protein disulfide isomerases, and includes a reversible disulfide bond formed from cysteines separated by two residues (Cys30-Pro31-His32-Cys33). Unlike(More)
Regulation of calbindin and calretinin expression by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was examined in primary cultures of cortical neurons using immunocytochemistry and northern blot analysis. Here we report that regulation of calretinin expression by BDNF is in marked contrast to that of calbindin. Indeed, chronic exposure of cultured cortical(More)
To record sleep, actigraph devices are worn on the wrist and record movements that can be used to estimate sleep parameters with specialized algorithms in computer software programs. With the recent establishment of a Current Procedural Terminology code for wrist actigraphy, this technology is being used increasingly in clinical settings as actigraphy has(More)
Munc18-1 and Syntaxin1 are essential proteins for SNARE-mediated neurotransmission. Munc18-1 participates in synaptic vesicle fusion via dual roles: as a docking/chaperone protein by binding closed Syntaxin1, and as a fusion protein that binds SNARE complexes in a Syntaxin1 N-peptide dependent manner. The two roles are associated with a closed-open(More)
We have identified by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis a protein known as stathmin which is phosphorylated in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in response to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in primary cultures of cortical neurons. We show that stathmin phosphorylation is preceded by the activation of mitogen-activated(More)