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Altered blood pressure and flow impact cardiac function during morphogenesis. How the arterial system supports cardiac morphogenesis after circulatory disruptions is not well characterized. We manipulated arterial flow via left atrial ligation (LAL) or arterial load via right vitelline artery ligation (VAL) in Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) stage 21 chick embryos.(More)
The embryonic heart and vessels are dynamic and form and remodel while functional. Much has been learned about the genetic mechanisms underlying the development of the cardiovascular system, but we are just beginning to understand how changes in heart and vessel structure are influenced by hemodynamic forces such as shear stress. Recent work has shown that(More)
RATIONALE The density of native (preexisting) collaterals varies widely and is a significant determinant of variation in severity of stroke, myocardial infarction, and peripheral artery disease. However, little is known about mechanisms responsible for formation of the collateral circulation in healthy tissues. OBJECTIVE We previously found that variation(More)
As in the adult dorsal aorta, the embryonic dorsal aorta is an important determinant of cardiovascular function, and increased stiffness may have secondary effects on cardiac and microcirculatory development. We previously showed that acutely and chronically increased arterial load via vitelline artery ligation (VAL) increases systemic arterial stiffness.(More)
Oxygen tension is a critical factor for appropriate embryonic and fetal development. Chronic hypoxia exposure alters cardiovascular (CV) function and structure in the late fetus and newborn, yet the immature myocardium is considered to be less sensitive to hypoxia than the mature heart. We tested the hypothesis that hypoxia during the period of primary CV(More)
RATIONALE Severity of tissue injury in occlusive disease is dependent on the extent (number and diameter) of collateral vessels, which varies widely among healthy mice and humans. However, the causative genetic elements are unknown. Recently, much of the variation among different mouse strains, including C57Bl/6J (B6, high extent) and BALB/cByJ (Bc, low(More)
During developmental hematopoiesis, multilineage hematopoietic progenitors are thought to derive from a subset of vascular endothelium. Herein, we define the phenotype of such hemogenic endothelial cells and demonstrate, on a clonal level, that they exhibit multilineage hematopoietic potential. Furthermore, we have begun to define the molecular signals that(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether human embryonic stem cells (hESC) committed in culture into hematopoietic/endothelial cell progenitors can be further developed into mature blood and vascular cells following transplantation into chicken embryos. MATERIALS AND METHODS The yolk sac of 42- to 44-hour chicken embryos received yolk sac injections of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The extent (number and diameter) of collateral vessels varies widely and is a major determinant, along with arteriogenesis (collateral remodeling), of variation in severity of tissue injury after large artery occlusion. Differences in genetic background underlie the majority of the variation in collateral extent in mice, through(More)
Fluorescence microscopy has become a principle methodology in the field of developmental biology. Recent technological advances have led to the design of high-speed and high-resolution confocal and multiphoton microscopes that enable researchers to obtain three- and four-dimensional information in living cells and whole embryos. Paralleling this progress,(More)