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Analysis of sequences from a 3.5-kb region of the nuclear ribosomal 28S DNA gene spanning divergent domains D2-D10 supports the hypothesis, based on fossil, biogeographic, and behavioral evidence, that treehoppers (Aetalionidae and Membracidae) are derived from leafhoppers (Cicadellidae). Maximum-parsimony analysis indicated that treehoppers are the sister(More)
Using qualitative backscattered electron (BSE) imaging and quantitative energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, some investigators have concluded that cement (reversal) lines located at the periphery of secondary osteons are poorly mineralized viscous interfaces with respect to surrounding bone. This conclusion contradicts historical observations of(More)
In recent decades, the majority of human plague cases (caused by Yersinia pestis) have been reported from Africa. In northwest Uganda, which has had recent plague outbreaks, cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) have been reported as the most common fleas in the home environment, which is suspected to be a major exposure site for human plague in this country.(More)
Within the United States, the majority of human plague cases are reported from New Mexico. We describe climatic factors involved in intra- and inter-annual plague dynamics using animal-based surveillance data from that state. Unlike the clear seasonal pattern observed at lower elevations, cases occur randomly throughout the year at higher elevations.(More)
Early-phase transmission (EPT) is a recently described model of plague transmission that explains the rapid spread of disease from flea to mammal host during an epizootic. Unlike the traditional blockage-dependent model of plague transmission, EPT can occur when a flea takes its first blood meal after initially becoming infected by feeding on a bacteraemic(More)
Energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and backscattered electron (BSE) imaging are finding increased use for determining mineral content in microscopic regions of bone. Electron beam bombardment, however, can damage the tissue, leading to erroneous interpretations of mineral content. We performed elemental (EDX) and mineral content (BSE) analyses on(More)
Rotavirus serotype G6 has been demonstrated to be a rare cause of gastroenteritis in man. To date, only a few well characterized strains have been described from Italy, Australia, and the United States. Nucleotide sequencing of G6 VP7 genes shows that these strains belong to two distinct G6 lineages, one for strains of serotype P11[14],G6 (PA169-like(More)
The role of deer mice and other species of Peromyscus as enzootic reservoirs for plague remains controversial. In this study, we evaluated early-phase vector efficiency of Aetheca wagneri Baker, a common flea species infesting deer mice, to determine the likelihood that Y. pestis could be spread mouse to mouse by this species. We showed that A. wagneri(More)
BACKGROUND Traditionally, efficient flea-borne transmission of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, was thought to be dependent on a process referred to as blockage in which biofilm-mediated growth of the bacteria physically blocks the flea gut, leading to the regurgitation of contaminated blood into the host. This process was previously shown to(More)
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the ability of the Eastern treehole mosquito, Ochlerotatus triseriatus, to transovarially transmit (TOT) La Crosse virus (LAC) were mapped in an F1 intercross. The Holmen strain of O. triseriatus, previously selected for TOT refractoriness, was crossed to the AIDL strain that had been selected for TOT permissiveness.(More)