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Analysis of sequences from a 3.5-kb region of the nuclear ribosomal 28S DNA gene spanning divergent domains D2-D10 supports the hypothesis, based on fossil, biogeographic, and behavioral evidence, that treehoppers (Aetalionidae and Membracidae) are derived from leafhoppers (Cicadellidae). Maximum-parsimony analysis indicated that treehoppers are the sister(More)
We report the first detection of P[14], G8 rotaviruses isolated in Egypt from the stool of children participating in a 3 year study of rotavirus epidemiology. Two strains, EGY1850 and EGY2295, were characterized by a serotyping enzyme immunoassay (EIA), virus neutralization, and sequence analysis of the genes encoding VP7 and the VP8* portion of the VP4(More)
We recently established a rotavirus strain surveillance system in the United States to monitor the prevalent G serotypes before and after the anticipated implementation of a vaccination program against rotavirus and to identify the emergence of uncommon strains. In this study, we examined 348 rotavirus strains obtained in 1996 to 1997 from children with(More)
Reliable epidemiologic data are essential for formulating effective policy to control rotavirus disease through immunization. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in a population-based cohort of children under 3 years of age residing in Abu Homos, Egypt, in 1995-1996. Rotavirus diarrhea incidence rates (episodes(More)
Rotavirus serotype G6 has been demonstrated to be a rare cause of gastroenteritis in man. To date, only a few well characterized strains have been described from Italy, Australia, and the United States. Nucleotide sequencing of G6 VP7 genes shows that these strains belong to two distinct G6 lineages, one for strains of serotype P11[14],G6 (PA169-like(More)
Using qualitative backscattered electron (BSE) imaging and quantitative energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, some investigators have concluded that cement (reversal) lines located at the periphery of secondary osteons are poorly mineralized viscous interfaces with respect to surrounding bone. This conclusion contradicts historical observations of(More)
This study describes the epidemiology of astrovirus diarrhea among a population-based cohort of 397 children aged <3 years residing in rural Egypt from 1995 to 1998. The age-specific incidence rates of astrovirus diarrheal episodes per person-year were 0.38 for infants aged <6 months, 0.40 for those aged 6-11 months, 0.16 for those aged 12-23 months, and(More)
In recent decades, the majority of human plague cases (caused by Yersinia pestis) have been reported from Africa. In northwest Uganda, which has had recent plague outbreaks, cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) have been reported as the most common fleas in the home environment, which is suspected to be a major exposure site for human plague in this country.(More)
Within the United States, the majority of human plague cases are reported from New Mexico. We describe climatic factors involved in intra- and inter-annual plague dynamics using animal-based surveillance data from that state. Unlike the clear seasonal pattern observed at lower elevations, cases occur randomly throughout the year at higher elevations.(More)
Early-phase transmission (EPT) is a recently described model of plague transmission that explains the rapid spread of disease from flea to mammal host during an epizootic. Unlike the traditional blockage-dependent model of plague transmission, EPT can occur when a flea takes its first blood meal after initially becoming infected by feeding on a bacteraemic(More)