Jennifer L. Fish

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Encephalization, and its relationship to potential selective forces, have been a focus of many studies of primate adaptation. It has been argued that gut size may constrain brain mass because these two types of "expensive tissue" (among others) compete in their metabolic requirements (Aiello and Wheeler [1995] Curr. Anthropol. 36:199-221). Following from(More)
Plasma amino acids were measured in 17 postoperative subjects randomly assigned to receive for > or = 5 d tube feeding or total parenteral nutrition (TPN) that had identical energy, nitrogen, and glutamine contents. Subjects required gastric or pancreatic surgery for malignancy and were well-matched for age and body mass index. Tube feeding or TPN began on(More)
This study was intended to characterize a rural population of older persons through nutrition screening and relate screening items to functional limitations and health care charges. There were 5373 participants (2522 males and 2851 females, mean age 71 y) screened over a 22-mo period by using a self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Nutrition(More)
The SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) was recently proposed as a clinically recognizable syndrome that results from deleterious alterations of the SATB2 gene in humans. Although interstitial deletions at 2q33 encompassing SATB2, either alone or contiguously with other genes, have been reported before, there is limited literature regarding intragenic mutations(More)
Modularity is a key mechanism bridging development and evolution and is fundamental to evolvability. Herein, we investigate modularity of the Vertebrate jaw with the aim of understanding mechanisms of its morphological evolution. Conservation of the basic structural bauplan of Vertebrate jaws led to a Hinge and Caps model, in which polarity in the(More)
Arterial and venous plasma amino acids were determined in 28 intensive care patients randomly assigned to receive 10 d of isoenergetic, isonitrogenous feedings that differed sixfold in glutamine content. Subjects were generally well-matched for age, injury severity, and disease diagnoses. Nasojejunal feedings were started within 48 h of admission. Data were(More)
Variation in jaw size during evolution has been crucial for the adaptive radiation of vertebrates, yet variation in jaw size during development is often associated with disease. To test the hypothesis that early developmental events regulating neural crest (NC) progenitors contribute to species-specific differences in size, we investigated mechanisms(More)
The Alx gene family is implicated in craniofacial development and comprises two to four homeobox genes in each vertebrate genome analyzed. Using phylogenetics and comparative genomics, we show that the common ancestor of jawed vertebrates had three Alx genes descendent from the two-round genome duplications (Alx1, Alx3, Alx4), compared with a single(More)
Craniofacial disease phenotypes exhibit significant variation in penetrance and severity. Although many genetic contributions to phenotypic variation have been identified, genotype-phenotype correlations remain imprecise. Recent work in evolutionary developmental biology has exposed intriguing developmental mechanisms that potentially explain incongruities(More)
The acquisition of jaws constitutes a landmark event in vertebrate evolution, one that in large part potentiated their success and diversification. Jaw development and patterning involves an intricate spatiotemporal series of reciprocal inductive and responsive interactions between the cephalic epithelia and the cranial neural crest (CNC) and cephalic(More)