Jennifer L. Bracy

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The majority of xenoreactive natural Abs in humans recognize the carbohydrate Ag present on pig tissue, Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc-R (alphaGal), synthesized by the enzyme UDP galactose:beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminide alpha(1-3)galactosyltransferase or alphaGT. Using alphaGT knockout mice (GT(0) mice), which like humans produce serum Abs that(More)
The major barrier to transplantation across discordant species, such as from pig to human, is rejection mediated by xenoreactive natural antibodies (XNA) that bind the carbohydrate epitope Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc-R (alphaGal) on donor tissues. This epitope is synthesized by the enzyme glucosyltransferase uridine 5'-diphosphate(More)
Xenotransplantation could overcome the severe shortage of allogeneic organs, a major factor limiting organ transplantation. Unfortunately, transplantation of organs from pigs, the most suitable potential donor species, results in hyperacute rejection in primate recipients, due to the presence of anti-Galalpha1-3Gal (Gal) natural antibodies (NAbs) in their(More)
One of the major goals of transplantation biology is to overcome transplant rejection without the need for life-long immunosuppression. Over the last several years, fundamental advances in our understanding of the immune response to allogeneic and xenogeneic antigens have stimulated a great deal of interest in the possibility of using gene therapy(More)
In order for xenotransplantation to become a clinical reality, and fulfill its promise of overcoming shortages of human organs and tissues, rejection mediated by the host's immune system must first be overcome. In primates, preformed natural antibodies that bind the carbohydrate antigen Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GIcNAc-R (alphaGal), which is synthesized by UDP(More)
Shortages of human organs for transplantation have made it necessary to examine the possibility of using nonhuman organs for xenotransplantation—the transplantation of tissues between different species. Pigs are now regarded as the most likely species to serve as donors for clinical xenotransplantation. However, rejection of pig tissues and organs, mediated(More)
Expression of retrovirally transduced genes in bone marrow-derived cells can be used to establish stable long-term B- and T-cell tolerance. To determine whether preexisting antibodies may prohibit the use of gene therapy to establish tolerance, we examined the extent to which preexisting antibodies specific for the carbohydrate antigen Gal alpha1-3Gal(More)
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