In humans, the primary visual cortex (V1) is essential for conscious vision. However, even without V1 and in the absence of awareness, some preserved ability to accurately respond to visual inputs has been demonstrated, a phenomenon referred to as blindsight. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to deactivate V1, producing transient blindness for… (More)
The influence of attention on perceptual awareness was examined using metacontrast masking. Attention was manipulated with endogenous cues to assess the effects on the temporal and spatial parameters of target visibility. Experiment 1 examined the time course of effective masking when the target and mask set were presented at an attended vs. an unattended… (More)
Seattle's urban forest is a thriving and sustainable mix of tree and understory species and ages that creates a contiguous and healthy ecosystem that is valued and cared for by the City and all of its residents as an essential environmental, economic, and shared community asset that reinforces Seattle's identity and legacy as a forested, livable city.