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Although it is known that macrophages take up serotonin, a specific monoamine transporter has not been identified in macrophages. In this study, mRNA coding for the serotonin transporter (SERT) was detected with the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in recruited mouse peritoneal macrophages. Sequencing confirmed the identity of the(More)
This study provides the first evidence for catecholamine synthesis and release in the RAW264.7 cell line, an important macrophage model. Although catecholamines were low in unstimulated cells, activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA and increased extracellular norepinephrine and intracellular dopamine within 48 h. The(More)
Previous studies indicate that norepinephrine and epinephrine modulate production of interleukin-1(beta) (IL-1(beta)) by activated macrophages, but it is not known if macrophage-derived catecholamines affect IL-1(beta). In this study, recruited peritoneal macrophages from CBA/J female mice were activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and treated with(More)
Cultured murine bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMC) were found to store high levels of dopamine (3753+/-844 pg/10(7) cells) and occasionally produce norepinephrine and epinephrine. The catecholamine synthesis inhibitor, alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine, decreased intracellular catecholamine concentrations, and activation with ionomycin stimulated dopamine(More)
Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, type II (CaMK-II) is an enzyme encoded by four genes (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) and traditionally associated with synaptic function in the adult central nervous system, but also believed to play a role during neuronal development. P19 mouse embryonic cells are a model system for neurogenesis and primarily(More)
OBJECTIVE Vesicular monoamine transporter 1 (VMAT-1) mRNA and protein were examined (1) to determine whether adult mouse brain expresses full-length VMAT-1 mRNA that can be translated to functional transporter protein and (2) to compare immunoreactive VMAT-1 proteins in brain and adrenal. METHODS VMAT-1 mRNA was detected in mouse brain with RT-PCR. The(More)
Studies have shown that distributed pair programming improves student performance and retention in online computer science (CS) courses. However, as online CS courses become more commonly offered in computer science and Informatics departments around the country, it is imperative that distributed pair programming becomes as effective as when performed in(More)
Catecholamines usually are found in neurons and chromaffin cells of mammals. In this study, surprisingly high levels of the epinephrine synthesizing enzyme phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase (PNMT) were detected in the thymus of young mice. Levels of PNMT activity in the thymus were comparable to levels in the brainstem and were suppressed by the PNMT(More)
OBJECTIVES Although single nucleotide polymorphisms of the human vesicular monoamine transporter 1 (hVMAT1) gene SLC18A1 have been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, there is limited information on the function of naturally occurring hVMAT1 variant proteins. This study evaluated transport activity of full length hVMAT1 isoform-a (NP_003044.1) with(More)
Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), the final enzyme in the biosynthesis of epinephrine, has been detected in rat and human spleen with radioenzymatic assays, but the presence of PNMT has not been examined in other lymphoid tissues. Using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern blot analysis, we tested for PNMT(More)