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BACKGROUND & AIMS Alterations in the microbial composition of the gastrointestinal tract (dysbiosis) are believed to contribute to inflammatory and functional bowel disorders and psychiatric comorbidities. We examined whether the intestinal microbiota affects behavior and brain biochemistry in mice. METHODS Specific pathogen-free (SPF) BALB/c mice, with(More)
  • E E Daniel, J Jury, Y F Wang
  • 2001
Immunochemical studies with light microscopy, confocal microscopy, and electron microscopy were used to examine proteins associated with caveolin (Cav) in canine lower esophageal sphincter. The main Cav was Cav-1. It appeared to be colocalized at the cell periphery, in punctate sites, with immunoreactivity to antibodies against different COOH- and(More)
Neonatal maternal separation (MS) predisposes adult rats to develop stress-induced mucosal barrier dysfunction/visceral hypersensitivity and rat pups to develop colonic epithelial dysfunction. Our aim was to examine if enhanced epithelial permeability in such pups resulted from abnormal regulation by enteric nerves. Pups were separated from the dam for 3(More)
Chronic psychological stress causes intestinal barrier dysfunction and impairs host defense mechanisms mediated by corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and mast cells; however, the exact pathways involved are unclear. Here we investigated the effect of chronic CRF administration on colonic permeability and ion transport functions in rats and the role of(More)
Motilin, pentagastrin and substance P (SP), injected intra-arterially into the canine gastric corpus in vivo increased the amplitude of contractions by an action dependent on activation of cholinergic nerves; i.e. atropine or tetrodotoxin (TTX) completely blocked the responses to motilin and pentagastrin and increased the ED50 of SP. TTX and atropine were(More)
The human gut houses one of the most complex and abundant ecosystems composed of up to 1013-1014 microorganisms. The importance of this intestinal microbiota is highlighted when a disruption of the intestinal ecosystem equilibrium appears (a phenomenon called dysbiosis) leading to an illness status, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Indeed, the(More)
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) pace gastrointestinal phasic activity and transmit nerve activity. Gap junctions may couple these cells to smooth muscle, but no functional evidence exists. The objective of this study was to use uncouplers of gap junctions, 18 alpha-glycyrrhetenic acid and its water-soluble analogue carbenoxolone, to evaluate if gap(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Excessive uptake of commensal bacterial antigens through a permeable intestinal barrier may influence host responses to specific antigen in a genetically predisposed host. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intestinal barrier dysfunction induced by indomethacin treatment affects the host response to intestinal microbiota in(More)
In opossum esophagus the highest density of varicose substance P-like immunoreactive deposits was in the muscularis mucosa, and this muscle layer, which is thick and prominent, was the most sensitive in contracting to exogenous substance P. On field stimulation, a tetrodotoxin-sensitive biphasic contraction was produced; an initial phasic component was(More)
Single smooth muscle cells from the opossum body circular muscle were isolated and whole cell currents were characterized by the whole cell patch-clamp technique. When the cells were held at -50 mV and depolarized to 70 mV in 20-mV increments, initial small inactivating inward currents were evoked (-30 to 30 mV) followed by larger sustained outward(More)