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BACKGROUND & AIMS Alterations in the microbial composition of the gastrointestinal tract (dysbiosis) are believed to contribute to inflammatory and functional bowel disorders and psychiatric comorbidities. We examined whether the intestinal microbiota affects behavior and brain biochemistry in mice. METHODS Specific pathogen-free (SPF) BALB/c mice, with(More)
Neonatal maternal separation (MS) predisposes adult rats to develop stress-induced mucosal barrier dysfunction/visceral hypersensitivity and rat pups to develop colonic epithelial dysfunction. Our aim was to examine if enhanced epithelial permeability in such pups resulted from abnormal regulation by enteric nerves. Pups were separated from the dam for 3(More)
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) pace gastrointestinal phasic activity and transmit nerve activity. Gap junctions may couple these cells to smooth muscle, but no functional evidence exists. The objective of this study was to use uncouplers of gap junctions, 18 alpha-glycyrrhetenic acid and its water-soluble analogue carbenoxolone, to evaluate if gap(More)
In opossum esophagus the highest density of varicose substance P-like immunoreactive deposits was in the muscularis mucosa, and this muscle layer, which is thick and prominent, was the most sensitive in contracting to exogenous substance P. On field stimulation, a tetrodotoxin-sensitive biphasic contraction was produced; an initial phasic component was(More)
Single smooth muscle cells from the opossum body circular muscle were isolated and whole cell currents were characterized by the whole cell patch-clamp technique. When the cells were held at -50 mV and depolarized to 70 mV in 20-mV increments, initial small inactivating inward currents were evoked (-30 to 30 mV) followed by larger sustained outward(More)
Field stimulation of the circular muscle of the opossum esophagus produces a transient hyperpolarization (inhibitory junction potential, IJP) followed by an "off" depolarization. A similar nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) response in guinea pig taenia caecum has been shown to be due to an increase in the potassium ion permeability of the smooth muscle(More)
The human gut houses one of the most complex and abundant ecosystems composed of up to 1013-1014 microorganisms. The importance of this intestinal microbiota is highlighted when a disruption of the intestinal ecosystem equilibrium appears (a phenomenon called dysbiosis) leading to an illness status, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Indeed, the(More)
The canine lower esophageal sphincter (LES) was evaluated as a model for investigation of the electrophysiology of nonadrenergic noncholinergic neurotransmission. The LES contained a dense collection of gap junctions and a moderate number of nerves located at the periphery of muscle bundles, which are often associated with interstitial cells of Cajal. These(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Excessive uptake of commensal bacterial antigens through a permeable intestinal barrier may influence host responses to specific antigen in a genetically predisposed host. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intestinal barrier dysfunction induced by indomethacin treatment affects the host response to intestinal microbiota in(More)
Systemic administration of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), mimics virally-induced activation of TLR3 signalling causing acute small intestine damage, but whether and how mucosal administration of poly I:C causes enteropathy is less clear. Our aim was to investigate the inflammatory pathways elicited after intraluminal administration of poly I:C(More)