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Follicular helper (T FH) cells provide crucial signals to germinal center B cells undergoing somatic hypermutation and selection that results in affinity maturation. Tight control of T FH numbers maintains self-tolerance. We describe a population of Foxp3 + Blimp-1 + CD4 + T cells constituting 10-25% of the CXCR5 high PD-1 high CD4 + T cells found in(More)
During T cell-dependent responses, B cells can either differentiate extrafollicularly into short-lived plasma cells or enter follicles to form germinal centers (GCs). Interactions with T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are required for GC formation and for selection of somatically mutated GC B cells. Interleukin (IL)-21 has been reported to play a role in Tfh(More)
We have derived a secondary structure model for 16S ribosomal RNA on the basis of comparative sequence analysis, chemical modification studies and nuclease susceptibility data. Nucleotide sequences of the E. coli and B. brevis 16S rRNA chains, and of RNAse T1 oligomer catalogs from 16S rRNAs of over 100 species of eubacteria were used for phylogenetic(More)
OBJECTIVE To define cellular mechanisms by which B cells promote type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study measured islet-specific CD4 T cell regulation in T-cell receptor transgenic mice with elevated frequencies of CD4 T cells recognizing hen egg lysozyme (HEL) autoantigen expressed in islet β-cells and thymic epithelium under control of(More)
We have studied the topography of 16S RNA in the inactive form of the 30S ribosomal subunit (Ginsburg, I., et al. (1973) J. Mol. Biol. 79, 481), using the guanine-specific reagent kethoxal. Oligonucleotides surrounding reactive guanine residues were isolated and quantitated by means of diagonal electrophoresis and sequenced. Comparison of these results with(More)
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