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BACKGROUND Exposure to smoking in movies has been linked with adolescent smoking initiation in cross-sectional studies. We undertook a prospective study to ascertain whether exposure to smoking in movies predicts smoking initiation. METHOD We assessed exposure to smoking shown in movies in 3547 adolescents, aged 10-14 years, who reported in a baseline(More)
Near-infrared spectroscopic tomography was used to measure the properties of 24 mammographically normal breasts to quantify whole-breast absorption and scattering spectra and to evaluate which tissue composition characteristics can be determined from these spectra. The absorption spectrum of breast tissue allows quantification of (i) total hemoglobin(More)
OBJECTIVE Regional studies have linked exposure to movie smoking with adolescent smoking. We examined this association in a representative US sample. DESIGN/METHODS We conducted a random-digit-dial survey of 6522 US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years. Using previously validated methods, we estimated exposure to movie smoking, in 532 recent box-office hits,(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine preschoolers' attitudes, expectations, and perceptions of tobacco and alcohol use. DESIGN Structured observational study. Children used props and dolls to act out a social evening for adults. As part of the role play, each child selected items from a miniature grocery store stocked with 73 different products, including beer, wine, and(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if young adolescents who report that their parents restrict viewing R-rated movies have a lower risk of trying smoking in the future. DESIGN Prospective observational study. Students from 15 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, randomly selected from all middle schools with >150 students, were surveyed in 1999. Baseline(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of inhibitors of Rho kinase (ROK) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) on angiogenesis and tumor growth and to evaluate ROK activity in human prostate cancer PC3 cells and endothelial cells (HUVECs). Vacuolation by endothelial cells and lumen formation, the earliest detectable stages of angiogenesis,(More)
BACKGROUND The role of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2-R) in left ventricular (LV) remodeling may depend on the underlying stimulus. We hypothesized that cardiac AT2-R overexpression in transgenic (TG) mice would attenuate remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS AND RESULTS Ten wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice and 12 TG mice that(More)
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES Near-infrared (NIR) imaging has its niche in quantifying and characterizing functional changes in tissue relating to vascularity and metabolic status. Here, NIR tomography was applied to study mammographically normal breast tissue in vivo by evaluating relationships between functional parameters so obtained to clinical representers(More)
The 1G/2G polymorphism of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) affects activity of the promoter in transient transfections, and has been associated with the incidence or invasiveness of five types of cancer. In light of these findings, and because stromal cells may contribute to tumor cell invasion, we used quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR to(More)