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BACKGROUND Exposure to smoking in movies has been linked with adolescent smoking initiation in cross-sectional studies. We undertook a prospective study to ascertain whether exposure to smoking in movies predicts smoking initiation. METHOD We assessed exposure to smoking shown in movies in 3547 adolescents, aged 10-14 years, who reported in a baseline(More)
OBJECTIVE Little is known about the impact of viewing depictions of alcohol in entertainment media on adolescent drinking behavior. Our aims were to assess drinking in a sample of popular contemporary movies and to examine the association of movie alcohol exposure with early-onset drinking in an adolescent sample. METHOD We conducted a school-based(More)
WHO oversees the quality control of BCG vaccine via a system that includes regular testing of products by in vitro methods and clinical trials. Three parent strains of BCG (Glaxo-1077, Tokyo-172, and Pasteur-1173P2) account for over 90% of the vaccines currently in use worldwide. Important characteristics of the vaccine preparations are summarized here,(More)
Near-infrared spectroscopic tomography was used to measure the properties of 24 mammographically normal breasts to quantify whole-breast absorption and scattering spectra and to evaluate which tissue composition characteristics can be determined from these spectra. The absorption spectrum of breast tissue allows quantification of (i) total hemoglobin(More)
OBJECTIVE Regional studies have linked exposure to movie smoking with adolescent smoking. We examined this association in a representative US sample. DESIGN/METHODS We conducted a random-digit-dial survey of 6522 US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years. Using previously validated methods, we estimated exposure to movie smoking, in 532 recent box-office hits,(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine preschoolers' attitudes, expectations, and perceptions of tobacco and alcohol use. DESIGN Structured observational study. Children used props and dolls to act out a social evening for adults. As part of the role play, each child selected items from a miniature grocery store stocked with 73 different products, including beer, wine, and(More)
OBJECTIVE Current standards of care for early-stage breast cancer include either breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with post-operative radiation or mastectomy. A variety of factors influence the type of treatment chosen. In northern, rural areas, daily travel for radiation can be difficult in winter. We investigated whether proximity to a radiation treatment(More)
BACKGROUND The alcohol industry spends over $5 billion a year on marketing, much of which is accessible to children. The distribution of branded articles of clothing and other personal items is one aspect of alcohol marketing that has not been adequately studied. In this study, the prevalence of ownership of alcohol-branded merchandise (ABM) was determined(More)
PURPOSE To prospectively assess quantitatively the inherent contrast of electromagnetic (EM) properties that can be imaged by using available technology in women with abnormal findings at conventional breast imaging who underwent subsequent biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS The protocol was HIPAA compliant and approved by the institutional review board. All(More)
OBJECTIVES Evidence suggests that media portrayals of tobacco and alcohol use are important predictors of adolescent smoking and drinking. We examined the role of parents in monitoring and limiting children's movie exposure and whether or not this was associated with a lower risk of adolescent smoking and drinking. DESIGN We surveyed 2606 child-parent(More)