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PURPOSE To determine whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulates angiopoietin (Ang)-1 and -2 expression in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. METHODS Expression of VEGF, Ang1, and Ang2 in surgically removed human choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVMs) was analyzed by double-label confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Total RNA was(More)
PURPOSE To determine the in vitro permeability of human sclera to compounds varying in molecular weight. To evaluate the effects of age, cryotherapy, transscleral diode laser, and surgical thinning on scleral permeability. METHODS Scleral tissue from 97 human eye bank eyes was tested individually in a two-chamber Ussing apparatus with the following(More)
PURPOSE To examine the extent to which visual acuity (VA) for broadband optotypes is scale invariant by determining whether the same object frequencies mediate VA for individuals with different levels of VA. METHODS LogMAR (minimum angle of resolution) VA for briefly presented tumbling E's was measured in 10 visually normal individuals and in five(More)
PURPOSE We used the recently devised three-dimensional computer-based threshold Amsler grid test to acquire and identify typical patterns of visual field defects (scotomas) caused by age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS Patients with AMD traced on a computer touch screen the borders of those areas on an Amsler grid that were missing from their(More)
Inflammatory mediators have been proposed to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularization, a blinding complication of age-related macular degeneration. We evaluated the expression of TNF-alpha in human choroidal neovascular membranes and found that it colocalized with cells expressing VEGF, angiopoietin (Ang)-1 and Ang2. In(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) remain rigid after immune reconstitution in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals with a history of severe immunosuppression. METHODS PMN rigidity was measured in vitro in three groups: (1) HIV-infected individuals with a history of CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts of less than(More)
Purpose We determined the effects of light flicker and diabetic retinopathy (DR) stage on retinal vascular diameter (D), oxygen saturation (SO2), and inner retinal oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). Methods Subjects were categorized as nondiabetic control (NC, n = 42), diabetic with no clinical DR (NDR; n = 32), nonproliferative DR (NPDR; n = 42), or(More)
PURPOSE To describe a method of en face visualization and quantification of the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction area, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and association with visual acuity. METHODS Case series of 74 eyes in 53 patients. Central 1-mm and 400-μm en face areas were analyzed with a computer algorithm. (More)
BACKGROUND A position paper based on the collective experiences of Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System investigators to review strategies to optimize outcomes in patients with retinitis pigmentosa undergoing retinal prosthesis implantation. METHODS Retinal surgeons, device programmers, and rehabilitation specialists from Europe, Canada, Middle East, and(More)
PURPOSE This article reports a method for en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging and quantitative assessment of alterations in both thickness and reflectance of individual retinal layers at different stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS High-density OCT raster volume scans were acquired in 29 diabetic subjects divided into no DR (NDR)(More)