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This paper analyzes peer effects among university scientists. Specifically, it investigates whether the number of peers and their average quality affects the productivity of researchers in physics, chemistry, and mathematics. The usual endogeneity problems related to estimating peer effects are addressed by using the dismissal of scientists by the Nazi(More)
We combine particular features of the German civil service with the unique event of German reunification to test the theory of precautionary savings and to quantify the importance of self-selection into occupations due to differences in risk aversion. In the presence of self-selection, failing to control for risk aversion in empirical tests of precautionary(More)
Any opinions expressed here are those of the author(s) and not those of IZA. Research published in this series may include views on policy, but the institute itself takes no institutional policy positions. The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in Bonn is a local and virtual international research center and a place of communication between science,(More)
participants in workshops at McGill and UBC, and friends in science and engineering for comments. I thank the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada for financial support. This paper was written while I was a visiting professor at the University of British Columbia. I am also affiliated with the CEPR, the IZA and the DIW-Berlin. The views(More)
to the NBER) and the Fonds pour la Formation de Chercheurs et l'Aide à la Recherche (97-NC-1676 to Margolis). We would like to thankSorbonne for comments on previous versions of this paper. The authors would also like to thank Lars Vilhuber for valuable research assistance. The American data used in this study were taken from the NBER extracts of the(More)
We use the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 to identify a causal effect of social ties between West and East Germans on economic growth, household income, and firm investment: West German regions which (for idiosyncratic reasons) had closer social ties to East Germany prior to 1989 experienced faster growth in income per capita after reunification. A one(More)