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Figure 6. T FR restrict the outgrowth of non-antigen specific clones in the germinal center. Flow cytometric contour plots (a) and graphs (b) of total GL-7 + CD95 + germinal center B cells and (c) NP + germinal center B cells ten days after immunization of Foxp3 WT and Foxp3 DTR mice that have been treated with DT 6 days after NP-KLH immunization.(More)
During T cell-dependent responses, B cells can either differentiate extrafollicularly into short-lived plasma cells or enter follicles to form germinal centers (GCs). Interactions with T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are required for GC formation and for selection of somatically mutated GC B cells. Interleukin (IL)-21 has been reported to play a role in Tfh(More)
Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array CGH) is a powerful tool for identifying genomic imbalances and providing a diagnosis in individuals with a normal karyotype. It has been particularly useful in the investigation of individuals with developmental delay +/−, dysmorphic features and/or multiple congenital abnormalities. However, this non-targeted(More)
BACKGROUND Mercury is known to be neurotoxic, but its effects on the immune system are less well known. Mast cells are involved in allergic reactions, but also in innate and acquired immunity, as well as in inflammation. Many patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have "allergic" symptoms; moreover, the prevalence of ASD in patients with(More)
OBJECTIVE To define cellular mechanisms by which B cells promote type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study measured islet-specific CD4 T cell regulation in T-cell receptor transgenic mice with elevated frequencies of CD4 T cells recognizing hen egg lysozyme (HEL) autoantigen expressed in islet β-cells and thymic epithelium under control of(More)
The HumanPSD database on the complete proteomes of human, mouse and rat has been integrated with the databases TRANSFAC on gene regulation and TRANSPATH on signal transduction to provide a comprehensive systems biological platform for these organisms. As a next step, integration with PathoDB and PathoSign on pathologically relevant mutations is planned(More)
Translating the exponentially growing amount of omics data into knowledge usable for a personalized medicine approach poses a formidable challenge. In this article-taking diabetes as a use case-we present strategies for developing data repositories into computer-accessible knowledge sources that can be used for a systemic view on the molecular causes of(More)
We have studied the topography of 16S RNA in the inactive form of the 30S ribosomal subunit (Ginsburg, I., et al. (1973) J. Mol. Biol. 79, 481), using the guanine-specific reagent kethoxal. Oligonucleotides surrounding reactive guanine residues were isolated and quantitated by means of diagonal electrophoresis and sequenced. Comparison of these results with(More)
A previously healthy man with no family history of fractures presented with muscle pain, back pain and height loss. Investigations revealed hypophosphataemia, phosphaturia, undetectable serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and severe osteomalacia on bone biopsy, suggestive of a diagnosis of oncogenic osteomalacia. Thorough physical examination did not locate a(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between maternal glucose levels and intrauterine fetal adiposity distribution in women with a normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 28 weeks gestation. STUDY DESIGN We recruited 231 women with a singleton pregnancy. At 28 and 37 weeks gestation, sonographic measurements of fetal body composition were performed.(More)
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